Production fabrication products of fish farming, beekeeping, sericulture, artificial insemination
In this Categorization Scheme, agriculture includes fisheries, forestry, food, nutrition and rural sociology. It comprises the production of plants and animals useful to man and the preparation and distribution of these products for man's use. Considerations on agriculture in its wide sense. For specific concepts see appropriate subject categories. Use for agricultural research administration in general. For research results on specific subjects see appropriate subject categories.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Sericulture, apiculture, viticulture, hoticulture, vermiculture, pisciculture, etc
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Twelve millennia ago, humankind moved into the Neolithic era and discovered that food, feed and fibre could be produced from the cultivation of plants. This discovery has led to the food and fibre supply that feeds and clothes more than 5 billion people today. This general profile of the agricultural industry includes its evolution and structure, economic importance of different crop commodities and characteristics of the industry and workforce.
Agricultural workforce systems involve three types of major activities:. The agriculture system is shown as four major processes. These processes represent sequential phases in crop production. The agricultural system produces food, feed and fibre as well as consequences for occupational health and, more generally, public health and the environment. Major commodities, such as wheat or sugar, are outputs from agriculture that are used as food, animal feed or fibre.
They are represented in this chapter by a series of articles that address processes, occupational hazards and preventive actions specific to each commodity sector. Animal feed and forage are discussed in the chapter Livestock rearing. One was west and southwest of the Caspian Sea, another was in Central America and a third was in Thailand near the Burmese border. Agriculture started in about BC at the latter location, where seeds of peas, beans, cucumbers and water chestnuts have been found.
This was 2, years before true agriculture was discovered in the other two regions. The essence of the Neolithic revolution and, thus, agriculture is the harvesting of plant seeds, their reintroduction into the soil and cultivation for another harvest. In the lower Caspian area, wheat was the early crop of choice. As farmers migrated, taking wheat seed with them, the weeds in other regions were discovered to also be edible.
These included rye and oats. In Central America, where maize and beans were the staples, the tomato weed was found to bear nutritious food. To provide water to crops, farmers discovered irrigation about 7, years ago. Solutions to these problems have led to new industries.
Ways to control weeds, insects and rodents evolved into the pesticide industry, and the need to replenish the soil has resulted in the fertilizer industry. The need to provide water for irrigation has spawned systems of reservoirs and networks of pipes, canals and ditches. Agriculture in the developing nations consists principally of family-owned plots.
Many of these plots have been handed down from generation to generation. In contrast, farms are increasing in size in the developed countries, turning agriculture into large-scale commercial operations, where production is integrated with processing, marketing and distribution in an agribusiness system Loftas Agriculture has provided subsistence for farmers and their families for centuries, and it has recently changed into a system of production agriculture.
The first of these was the mechanization of agriculture, whereby machines in the fields substituted for manual labour. The second was the chemical revolution that, after the Second World War, contributed to the control of pests in agriculture, but with environmental consequences.
A third was the green revolution, which contributed to North American and Asian productivity growth through genetic advances in the new varieties of crops. The human population has grown from 2. The continued rise in the human population will increase the demand for food energy and nutrients, both because of the increase in numbers of people and the global drive to combat malnutrition Brown, Lenssen and Kane A list of nutrients derived from food is shown in table Nutrient Plant sources Animal sources Carbohydrates sugars and starch Fruits, cereals, root vegetables, pulses Honey, milk Dietary fats Oilseeds, nuts, and legumes Meat, poultry, butter, ghee, fish Proteins Pulses, nuts, and cereals Meat, fish, dairy products Vitamins Carotenes: carrots, mangoes, papaya.
Vitamin B complex: cereals, legumes Vitamin A: liver, eggs, milk. Vitamin B complex: meat, poultry, dairy products Minerals Calcium: peas, beans. Iron: dark green leafy vegetables and nuts Calcium: milk, meat, cheese. Agriculture today can be understood as an enterprise to provide subsistence for those doing the work, staples for the community in which the food is grown and income from the sale of commodities to an external market.
A staple food is one that supplies a major part of energy and nutrient needs and constitutes a dominant part of the diet. Excluding animal products, most people live off of one or two of the following staples: rice, wheat, maize corn , millet, sorghum, and roots and tubers potatoes, cassava, yams and taro. Cereals constitute the principal commodity category that the world depends upon for its staples. Cereals include wheat and rice, the principal food staples, and coarse grains, which are used for animal feed.
Another basic food crop is the starchy foods: cassava, sweet potatoes, potatoes, yams, taro and plantains. More than 1 billion people in developing nations use roots and tubers as staples. Cassava is grown as a staple in developing countries for million people. For some of these commodities, much of the production and consumption remains at the subsistence level. They are important for their starch and protein. Other legumes are used as oil crops; they include soybeans and groundnuts.
Additional oil crops, used to make vegetable oil, include coconuts, sesame, cotton seed, oil palm and olive. In addition, some maize and rice bran are used to make vegetable oil. Oil crops also have uses other than for food, such as in manufacturing paints and detergents Alexandratos Small landholders grow many of the same crops as plantation operations do. Plantation crops, typically thought of as tropical export commodities, include natural rubber, palm oil, cane sugar, tropical beverages coffee, cocoa, tea , cotton, tobacco and bananas.
They may include crops that are also grown for both local consumption and export, such as coffee and sugar cane ILO Urban agriculture is labour intensive, occurs on small plots and is present in developed as well as developing countries. The largest component of this workforce is in the developing nations and transitional economies.
Less than million are in the developed nations, where mechanization has added to their productivity. Farming employs men and women, young and old. Women are also given the task of growing the subsistence diet for their families Loftas Children become farm labourers around the world at an early age figure Child labour has been a part of plantation agriculture throughout its history, and a prevalent use of contract labour based upon compensation for tasks completed aggravates the problem of child labour.
Whole families work to increase the task completion in order to sustain or increase their income. Data on plantation employment generally show that the highest incidence of poverty is among agricultural wage labourers working in commercial agriculture.
Plantations are located in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and living and working conditions there may aggravate health problems that accompany the poverty ILO Agriculture in urban areas is another important component of the industry. When subsistence agriculture in urban areas is included, the total reaches million UNDP Total agricultural employment by major world region is shown in figure In both the United States and Canada, a small proportion of the population is employed in agriculture, and farms are becoming fewer as operations consolidate.
In Western Europe, agriculture has been characterized by smallholdings, a relic of equal division of the previous holding among the children. However, with the migration from agriculture, holdings in Europe have been increasing in size.
The average farm size in the former USSR was more than 10, hectares, while in other Eastern European countries it was about one-third that size. This is changing as these countries move toward market economies. Many Asian countries have been modernizing their agricultural operations, with some countries achieving rice surpluses. More than 2 billion people remain engaged in agriculture in this region, and much of the increased production is attributed to high- production species of crops such as rice.
Latin America is a diverse region where agriculture plays an important economic role. It has vast resources for agricultural use, which has been increasing, but at the expense of tropical forests. In both the Middle East and Africa, per capita food production has seen a decline. In the Middle East, the principal limiting factor on agriculture is the availability of water.
In Africa, traditional farming depends upon small, 3- to 5-hectare plots, which are operated by women while the men are employed elsewhere, some in other countries to earn cash. Some countries are developing larger farming operations.
The family farm is an enterprise and a homestead on which both children and the elderly are likely to be present. In some parts of the world, farm families live in villages surrounded by their farm land. The family farm combines family relationships and child raising with the production of food and other raw materials. Family farms range from small, subsistence or part-time operations worked with draught animals and hand tools to very large, family-held corporations with numerous full-time employees.
Types of family farms are distinguished by national, regional, cultural, historical, economic, religious and several other factors. The size and type of operations determine the demand for labour from family members and the need for hired full- or part-time workers. A typical farm operation may combine the tasks of livestock handling, manure disposal, grain storage, heavy equipment operation, pesticide application, machinery maintenance, construction and many other jobs.
The concentration of farm operations and the reduction in the number of family farms has been recognized for decades. These economic forces affect the work processes, workload and safety and health of the family farm. Several key changes are occurring in family farming as a direct result of these economic forces, including expanding workloads, increasing reliance on hired labor, use of new techniques, unsupervised adolescents and struggling to maintain economic viability.
Children nearing adolescence contribute to family farm productivity. Small and medium-size family farms are likely to rely on this labor, especially when adult family members work off the farm.
The result may be unsupervised work by farm children. The family farm is a hazardous work environment. It is one of few hazardous workplaces where multiple generations of family members may live, work and play. A farm can be the source of many and differing life-threatening hazards. The most important indicator for safety and health is workload per worker-both physical labor and decision-making or mental workload.
Many serious injuries happen to experienced farmers, working with familiar equipment in familiar fields, while doing tasks that they have been performing for years and even decades. Hazardous agricultural materials including pesticides, fertilizers, flammable liquids, solvents and other cleaners are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses in farm workers and family members.
Tractors, augers and other mechanized equipment have permitted a dramatic increase in the land and livestock that can be worked by a single farmer, but mechanization has contributed to severe injuries in agriculture.
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While dealing with animals welcome across certain animals which are very beneficial for human kind. The study of such animals constitute the term economic zoology. These animals are economical in various ways either their products or they them selves are used in many ways.
Contact Information. Honey Production. Honeybee Research Institute,. National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. Elizabeth Stephan Waghchoure.
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Agriculture Business Enterprises Demonstration Sites
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This text is meant purely as a documentation tool and has no legal effect. The Union's institutions do not assume any liability for its contents. The authentic versions of the relevant acts, including their preambles, are those published in the Official Journal of the European Union and available in EUR-Lex.
When completing form T, Statement of Business or Professional Activities , form T, Statement of Fishing Activities , or form T, Statement of Farming Activities , you have to enter an industry code that corresponds to your main business activity. If your business has more than one activity, use the code that most closely describes your main business activity. For example, you might operate a bookstore in which you sell postage stamps. If none of the generalized industry codes closely describes your main business activity, you can get a suitable code from the complete list of North American Industry Classification System codes NAICS maintained by Statistics Canada.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The Business of Aquaculture
Beekeeping or apiculture is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives , by humans. Most such bees are honey bees in the genus Apis , but other honey-producing bees such as Melipona stingless bees are also kept. A beekeeper or apiarist keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produce including beeswax , propolis , flower pollen , bee pollen , and royal jelly , to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard". Depictions of humans collecting honey from wild bees date to 10, years ago. It wasn't until the 18th century that European understanding of the colonies and biology of bees allowed the construction of the movable comb hive so that honey could be harvested without destroying the entire colony.
Act No. 124 of 2003 relative to food production and food safety (Food Act).
Agriculture and allied activities accounts for about Besides this Agriculture Industry employs a large number of people in the Organized and the Unorganized sector, the data pertaining to the same is however not available. Based on the assumptions of Food Grain Production and Manpower required to handle the total produced, the same is derived at 0. India has about million hectares of arable land of which 55 million is irrigated. With the increase in population the demand for food and Agri produce is increasing, but the supply is constant due to low agricultural productivity. This is predominantly due to improper Farm Management practices and loss in post-harvest handling.
The aim of this Act is to secure a supply to the market of healthy and safe food, including beverages, and to protect health, quality and consumer interests along the whole food production and distribution chain and to secure an environmentally friendly production. The Act shall further enhance good health of plants and animals and shall apply to all matters regarding health of animals and plants. The Act consists of 35 sections divided into 7 Chapters.
To keep records is simply to collect relevant information that can help you to take good decisions and to keep track of activities, production and important events on a farm. Records can be about any performance of the animals, economic development, or any activity of the farmer or veterinarian. It is important to keep record keeping simple, and to keep records systematic.
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Оба замолчали. Сьюзан глубоко дышала, словно пытаясь вобрать в себя ужасную правду. Энсей Танкадо создал не поддающийся взлому код.