Storage space reindeer and camel husbandry products
A working animal or draught or draft animal is an animal, usually domesticated , that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. They may be pets or draft animals trained to achieve certain tasks, such as guide dogs , assistance dogs , draft horses or logging elephants. Most working animals are either service animals or draft animals. They may also be used for milking or herding. Some, at the end of their working lives, may also be used for meat or other products such as leather.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: What’s Under the Saddle of Camel Tourism Rides?
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A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock , they provide food milk and meat and textiles fiber and felt from hair. Camels are working animals especially suited to their desert habitat and are a vital means of transport for passengers and cargo. There are three surviving species of camel. The Wild Bactrian camel is a separate species and is now critically endangered.
The dromedary C. The critically endangered wild Bactrian C. An extinct species of camel  in the separate genus Camelops , known as C. The average life expectancy of a camel is 40 to 50 years. The widening toes on a camel's hoof provide supplemental grip for varying soil sediments.
The male dromedary camel has an organ called a dulla in its throat, a large, inflatable sac he extrudes from his mouth when in rut to assert dominance and attract females. It resembles a long, swollen, pink tongue hanging out of the side of its mouth. Camels do not directly store water in their humps; they are reservoirs of fatty tissue.
Concentrating body fat in their humps minimizes the insulating effect fat would have if distributed over the rest of their bodies, helping camels survive in hot climates. This fat metabolization , while releasing energy, causes water to evaporate from the lungs during respiration as oxygen is required for the metabolic process : overall, there is a net decrease in water. Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without any external source of water.
Camels are able to withstand changes in body temperature and water consumption that would kill most other mammals. When the camel exhales, water vapor becomes trapped in their nostrils and is reabsorbed into the body as a means to conserve water. When the animal lies down in a sternal recumbent position, the pedestal raises the body from the hot surface and allows cooling air to pass under the body. Camels' mouths have a thick leathery lining, allowing them to chew thorny desert plants.
Long eyelashes and ear hairs, together with nostrils that can close, form a barrier against sand. If sand gets lodged in their eyes, they can dislodge it using their transparent third eyelid. The camels' gait and widened feet help them move without sinking into the sand. The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at reabsorbing water. Camels' kidneys have a cortex to medulla ratio.
Secondly, renal corpuscles have a smaller diameter, which reduces surface area for filtration. These two major anatomical characteristics enable camels to conserve water and limit the volume of urine in extreme desert conditions.
The camel immune system differs from those of other mammals. Normally, the Y-shaped antibody molecules consist of two heavy or long chains along the length of the Y, and two light or short chains at each tip of the Y.
Camels, in addition to these, also have antibodies made of only two heavy chains, a trait that makes them smaller and more durable. The karyotypes of different camelid species have been studied earlier by many groups,       but no agreement on chromosome nomenclature of camelids has been reached. The Y is a small metacentric chromosome, while the X is a large metacentric chromosome. The hybrid is 2. According to molecular data, the New World and Old World camelids diverged about 11 million years ago.
It has ears intermediate between those of camels and llamas, longer legs than the llama, and partially cloven hooves. The earliest known camel, called Protylopus , lived in North America 40 to 50 million years ago during the Eocene.
The direct ancestor of all modern camels, Paracamelus , existed in the upper Miocene to Middle Pleistocene. The last camel native to North America was Camelops hesternus , which vanished along with horses , short-faced bears , mammoths and mastodons , ground sloths , sabertooth cats , and many other megafauna, coinciding with the migration of humans from Asia.
Like horses before their extinction in their continent of origin, camels spread across the Bering land bridge , moving in the opposite direction from the Asian immigration to America. They survived in the Old World, and eventually humans domesticated them and spread them globally. Along with many other megafauna in North America, the original wild camels were wiped out during the spread of Native Americans from Asia into North America, 12, to 10, years ago.
Martin Heide's work on the domestication of the camel tentatively concludes that humans had domesticated the Bactrian camel by at least the middle of the third millennium somewhere east of the Zagros Mountains , with the practice then moving into Mesopotamia.
Heide suggests that mentions of camels "in the patriarchal narratives may refer, at least in some places, to the Bactrian camel", while noting that the camel is not mentioned in relationship to Canaan. This garnered considerable media coverage, as it is strong evidence that the stories of Abraham , Jacob , Esau , and Joseph were written after this time.
The existence of camels in Mesopotamia—but not in the eastern Mediterranean lands—is not a new idea. The historian Richard Bulliet did not think that the occasional mention of camels in the Bible meant that the domestic camels were common in the Holy Land at that time. Albright , writing even earlier, saw camels in the Bible as an anachronism. The introduction of the dromedary camel Camelus dromedarius as a pack animal to the southern Levant Most scholars today agree that the dromedary was exploited as a pack animal sometime in the early Iron Age not before the 12th century [BC].
Current data from copper smelting sites of the Aravah Valley enable us to pinpoint the introduction of domestic camels to the southern Levant more precisely based on stratigraphic contexts associated with an extensive suite of radiocarbon dates.
The data indicate that this event occurred not earlier than the last third of the 10th century [BC] and most probably during this time. The coincidence of this event with a major reorganization of the copper industry of the region—attributed to the results of the campaign of Pharaoh Shoshenq I —raises the possibility that the two were connected, and that camels were introduced as part of the efforts to improve efficiency by facilitating trade. A camel serving as a draft animal in Pakistan A camel in a ceremonial procession, its rider playing kettledrums , Mughal Empire c.
Petroglyph of a camel, Negev , southern Israel prior to c. Joseph Sells Grain by Bartholomeus Breenbergh , showing camel with rider at left.
Desert tribes and Mongolian nomads use camel hair for tents, yurts , clothing, bedding and accessories. Camels have outer guard hairs and soft inner down, and the fibers are sorted [ by whom? The guard hairs can be felted for use as waterproof coats for the herdsmen, while the softer hair is used for premium goods. Pure camel hair is recorded as being used for western garments from the 17th century onwards, and from the 19th century a mixture of wool and camel hair was used. By at least BC the first camel saddles had appeared, and Bactrian camels could be ridden.
The first saddle was positioned to the back of the camel, and control of the Bactrian camel was exercised by means of a stick. However, between and BC, Bactrian camels came into military use. New saddles, which were inflexible and bent, were put over the humps and divided the rider's weight over the animal. In the seventh century BC the military Arabian saddle evolved, which again improved the saddle design slightly.
The first documented use of camel cavalries occurred in the Battle of Qarqar in BC. The East Roman Empire used auxiliary forces known as dromedarii , whom the Romans recruited in desert provinces. The United States Army established the U. Camel Corps , stationed in California , in the late 19th century.
Floyd , Secretary of War in , recommended that funds be allocated towards obtaining a thousand more camels , the outbreak of the American Civil War in saw the end of the Camel Corps: Texas became part of the Confederacy, and most of the camels were left to wander away into the desert. In , the British created the Imperial Camel Corps. The Imperial Camel Corps comprised infantrymen mounted on camels for movement across desert, though they dismounted at battle sites and fought on foot.
After July , the Corps began to become run down, receiving no new reinforcements, and was formally disbanded in The Corps supported British war operations in Sinai , Palestine, and Syria by transporting supplies to the troops. The Somaliland Camel Corps was created by colonial authorities in British Somaliland in ; it was disbanded in The unit guarded outposts and sometimes conducted patrols on camelback.
Camel milk is a staple food of desert nomad tribes and is sometimes considered a meal itself; a nomad can live on only camel milk for almost a month. Camel milk can readily be made into yogurt , but can only be made into butter if it is soured first, churned, and a clarifying agent is then added. Camel milk can also be made into ice cream. They provide food in the form of meat and milk Tariq et al. From chemical composition to meat quality, the dromedary camel is the preferred breed for meat production.
It does well even in arid areas due to its unusual physiological behaviors and characteristics, which include tolerance to extreme temperatures, radiation from the sun, water paucity, rugged landscape and low vegetation. Camel meat has been eaten for centuries. It has been recorded by ancient Greek writers as an available dish at banquets in ancient Persia , usually roasted whole.
You can have Camel Steak, Skewers and Hamburgers also Zurbyaan rice with camel meat is served in local restaurants. Camel meat is also occasionally found in Australian cuisine : for example, a camel lasagna is available in Alice Springs.
A report issued jointly by the Saudi Ministry of Health and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention details cases of human bubonic plague resulting from the ingestion of raw camel liver.
However, according to some Islamic schools of thought , a state of impurity is brought on by the consumption of it. Consequently, these schools hold that Muslims must perform wudhu ablution before the next time they pray after eating camel meat.
The Islamic texts contain several stories featuring camels. After the Prophet Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Medina , he allowed his she-camel to roam there; the location where the camel stopped to rest determined the location where he would build his house in Medina. According to Jewish tradition, camel meat and milk are not kosher. The Horn region alone has the largest concentration of camels in the world,  where the dromedaries constitute an important part of local nomadic life.
They provide nomadic people in Somalia  and Ethiopia with milk, food, and transportation. Around , dromedary camels are now feral in Australia , descended from those introduced as a method of transport in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
A small population of introduced camels, dromedaries and Bactrians, wandered through Southwestern United States after having been imported in the 19th century as part of the U.
Camel Corps experiment. When the project ended, they were used as draft animals in mines and escaped or were released. Twenty-five U.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock , they provide food milk and meat and textiles fiber and felt from hair. Camels are working animals especially suited to their desert habitat and are a vital means of transport for passengers and cargo. There are three surviving species of camel.
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Конечно, я буду счастлив тебе заплатить. - И он начал отсчитывать купюры. Глядя, как он шелестит деньгами, Меган вскрикнула и изменилась в лице, по-видимому ложно истолковав его намерения. Она испуганно посмотрела на вращающуюся дверь… как бы прикидывая расстояние. До выхода было метров тридцать. - Я оплачу тебе билет до дома, если… - Молчите, - сказала Меган с кривой улыбкой. - Я думаю, я поняла, что вам от меня. - Она наклонилась и принялась рыться в сумке.
Джабба вытер губы. - Ты на месте. - А-га. - Не хочешь составить мне компанию.
Сьюзан попробовала что-то сказать, но Джабба ее перебил: - Чего вы ждете, директор.
Ничего не трогайте. Ничего не читайте. - Энсей Танкадо… родился в январе… - Пожалуйста, - вежливо сказал Беккер.
Коридор, выложенный кафельными плитками, довольно круто спускался вниз, и Сьюзан держалась за перила, стараясь не отставать. Воздух в помещении становился все прохладнее. Чем глубже под землю уходил коридор, тем уже он становился. Откуда-то сзади до них долетело эхо чьих-то громких, решительных шагов.
Фонтейн повернулся к Сьюзан. - Как вы думаете, мисс Флетчер. Сьюзан задумалась. Она чувствовала, что здесь что-то не то, но не могла сообразить, что. Она достаточно хорошо знала Танкадо и знала, что он боготворил простоту.
Его доказательства, его программы всегда отличали кристальная ясность и законченность.
Она судорожно ловила ртом воздух, извиваясь в руках Хейла. Он хотел было отпустить ее и броситься к лифту Стратмора, но это было бы чистым безумием: все равно он не знает кода. Кроме того, оказавшись на улице без заложницы, он обречен. Даже его безукоризненный лотос беспомощен перед эскадрильей вертолетов Агентства национальной безопасности. Сьюзан - это единственное, что не позволит Стратмору меня уничтожить.
Дэвид Беккер. - Он пожал ее руку. - Примите мои поздравления, мистер Беккер. Мне сказали, что вы сегодня отличились.
Главное достижение заключалось не в том, что секретная информация стала недоступной для широкой публики, а в том, что к ней имели доступ определенные люди.
Каждой единице информации присваивался уровень секретности, и, в зависимости от этого уровня, она использовалась правительственными чиновниками по профилю их деятельности. Командир подводной лодки мог получить последние спутниковые фотографии российских портов, но не имел доступа к планам действий подразделений по борьбе с распространением наркотиков в Южной Америке. Эксперты ЦРУ могли ознакомиться со всеми данными об известных убийцах, но не с кодами запуска ракет с ядерным оружием, которые оставались доступны лишь для президента.
На рассвете я усмирил свою гордыню и позвонил директору - и, уверяю тебя, это был бы тот еще разговорчик. Доброе утро, сэр. Извините, что пришлось вас разбудить.
- Слово разница многозначно.
Фотография внезапно обрела резкость, но он понимал, что увиденное слишком невероятно. Один шанс к миллиону. У меня галлюцинация. Когда двери автобуса открылись, молодые люди быстро вскочили внутрь. Беккер напряг зрение.
Я понимаю, ты расстроена из-за Дэвида. Я не хотел, чтобы ты узнала об этом. Я был уверен, что он тебе все рассказал. Сьюзан ощутила угрызения совести. - Я тоже хватила через край.
Извините. Дэвид - это отличная кандидатура.
У меня нет на это времени, - сказала себе Сьюзан. На поиски вируса может уйти несколько дней. Придется проверить тысячи строк программы, чтобы обнаружить крохотную ошибку, - это все равно что найти единственную опечатку в толстенной энциклопедии. Сьюзан понимала, что ей ничего не остается, как запустить Следопыта повторно.