Units factory natural aroma-forming substances
Higher revenue in the finished flavors and extracts product lines was offset by lower revenue in certain flavor ingredient product lines. These items were partially offset by the Natural Ingredients business, which reported higher profit compared to the comparable period last year. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1, million, an increase of 8. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1, million, an increase of 4.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Aroma Chemicals for Creating Perfume - 1 to 5
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THE CHEMISTRY OF MILK
Milk products prepared by lactic acid fermentation e. Kefir are called fermented or cultured milks. The term fermented will be used in this chapter. The generic name of fermented milk is derived from the fact that the milk for the product is inoculated with a starter culture which converts part of the lactose to lactic acid. Dependent on the type of lactic acid bacteria used carbon dioxide, acetic acid, diacetyl, acetaldehyde and several other substances are formed in the conversion process, and these give the products their characteristic fresh taste and aroma.
The microorganisms used in the production of kefir and koumiss also produce ethyl alcohol. Fermented milk originates from the Near East and subsequently became popular in Eastern and Central Europe. The first example of fermented milk was presumably produced accidentally by nomads. This milk turned sour and coagulated under the influence of certain microorganisms.
As luck would have it, the bacteria were of the harmless, acidifying type and were not toxin-producing organisms. Zoom Fig. A legend says that yoghurt and kefir were born on the slopes of Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus range by a miracle of nature.
Microorganisms of various kinds happened to land in a pitcher of milk at the same time and at the right temperature, and found that they could live in symbiosis. Some sources say that this name was introduced in the 8th Century and that it was changed in the 11th Century to its present form, yoghurt.
Kefir, the legend goes on to relate, was created on the northern slope by a mixture of microorganisms that are not so fond of heat. The name kefir may be derived from Turkish. Kefir contains several different types of microorganisms, among which yeast is most famous as it is capable of forming alcohol. The maximum alcohol content of kefir is about 0.
The conversion of lactose into lactic acid has a preservative effect on milk. The low pH of cultured milk inhibits the growth of putrefactive bacteria and other detrimental organisms, thereby prolonging the shelf life of the product.
On the other hand, acidified milk is a very favourable environment for yeasts and moulds, which cause off-flavours, blown packages etc. The digestive systems of some people lack the lactase enzyme.
As a result, lactose is not broken down in the digestive process into simpler types of sugars. These people can consume only very small volumes of ordinary milk. They can, however, consume fermented milk, in which the lactose is already partly broken down by the bacterial enzymes.
In the production of fermented milk, the best possible growth conditions must be created for the starter culture. These are achieved by heat treatment of the milk to destroy any competing microorganisms.
In addition, the milk must be held at the optimum temperature for the relevant starter culture. When the best possible flavour and aroma have been achieved, the cultured milk must be cooled quickly, to stop the fermentation process. If the fermentation time is too long or too short, the flavour will be impaired and the consistency wrong.
In addition to flavour and aroma, correct appearance and consistency are important features. These are determined by the choice of pre-processing parameters. Some of the most important fermented milk products are described below. The production techniques for other fermented products have many similarities; the pre-treatment of the milk, for example, is almost the same.
The process descriptions for other products therefore concentrate primarily on the production stages which differ from those in yoghurt production. Yoghurt is the best known of all fermented milk products, and the most popular worldwide.
The consistency, flavour and aroma vary from one district to another. In some areas, yoghurt is produced in the form of a highly viscous liquid, while in other countries it is in the form of a softer gel.
Yoghurt is also produced in frozen form as a dessert, or as a drink. The flavour and aroma of yoghurt differ from those of other acidified products, and the volatile aromatic substances include small quantities of acetic acid and acetaldehyde. Yoghurt with various fruits, flavouring and aroma additives is very popular, although the trend back towards natural yoghurt is clearly discernible in some markets.
The fruit is mixed with the yoghurt before or in conjunction with packing; it can also be placed in the bottom of the pack, before the latter is filled with yoghurt. Alternatively, the fruit can be separately packed in a twin cup integrated with the basic cup. Sometimes yoghurt is also flavoured with vanilla, honey, coffee essences, etc. Colouring and sugar in the form of sucrose, glucose or aspartame a sugar-free diet sweetener are often added together, with the flavouring.
When necessary stabilizers may also be added to modify the consistency. The additives increase the DM Dry Matter content of the finished yoghurt; a typical composition for fruit yoghurt is:. Numerous factors must be carefully controlled during the manufacturing process in order to produce a high-quality yoghurt with the required flavour, aroma, viscosity, consistency, appearance, freedom from whey separation and long shelf life:.
Pre-treatment of the milk thus includes a number of measures which are all very important to the quality of the end product. The mechanical treatment to which yoghurt is subjected during production also affects its quality. In order to be able to produce a high quality yoghurt, the milk intended for yoghurt production must be of the highest bacteriological quality. It must have a low content of bacteria and substances which may impede the development of the yoghurt culture.
The milk must not contain antibiotics, bacteriophages, residues of CIP solution or sterilizing agents. The dairy should therefore obtain the milk for yoghurt production from selected, approved producers. The milk must be very carefully analysed at the dairy.
A fat content of 0. An increase in the total DM content, particularly the proportion of casein and whey proteins, will result in a firmer yoghurt coagulum, and the tendency to whey separation will then be reduced. The disaccharide sucrose, or a monosaccharide such as glucose, can be added alone, or in conjunction with fruit addition.
To satisfy dieters, among whom diabetics are an important category, sweeteners should be used. A sweetener has no nutritive value, but tastes very sweet, even in very small doses. Hydrophilic colloids can bind water. They increase the viscosity and help to prevent whey separation in yoghurt.
The type of stabilizer and the rate at which it should be added must be determined experimentally by each manufacturer. The product may acquire a rubbery, hard consistency if the wrong stabilizer, or an excess of stabilizer, is used.
Correctly produced, natural yoghurt requires no addition of stabilizers, as a firm, fine gel with a high viscosity will occur naturally. Stabilizers can be used in fruit yoghurts and must be used in pasteurized and whipped yoghurt. Stabilizers 0. The air content of the milk used to make fermented milk products should be as low as possible. However, some admixture of air is unavoidable if the MSNF content is increased by addition of milk powder.
If this is done, the milk should be deaerated as part of the subsequent processing. Zoom Fig The main motives for homogenizing milk intended for cultured milk production are to prevent creaming during the incubation period and to assure uniform distribution of the milk fat. Homogenization also improves the stability and consistency of fermented milks, even those with low fat contents.
Table Figure The viscosity of full-stream homogenized milk runs parallel to the homogenization pressure, regardless of whether it has been subjected to ordinary heat treatment or not. The table also shows that high-temperature heat treatment makes the product more viscous. Homogenization is frequently utilized even in production of low-fat cultured milks.
For certain recipes these higher parameters have a positive influence on both viscosity and stability. The question of single- or double-stage homogenization is sometimes discussed. Generally speaking, this is a matter of the design of the homogenization system and of the homogenizer head in particular. UHT treatment and sterilization of milk intended for culturing do not, however, have the same favourable influence on viscosity, for reasons not yet fully understood.
Culture laboratories today produce a wide range of customized yoghurt cultures. Dairies can choose branded yoghurt cultures or mix cultures themselves to get their own requirements for the final yoghurt. Some cultures will give the final yoghurt different mouth thickness and gel firmness. Other cultures that influence fermentation time and post acidification.
Cultures are also adapted to the type of yoghurt that should be produced e. In earlier times it was common that dairies bought a mother culture from a culture laboratory. The dairy then propagated the culture itself in water baths and bulk starter tanks to get enough for the yoghurt production. This system is rarely used today. It is so much easier and safer to use the highly concentrated cultures produced by the culture company.
These cultures are distributed deep frozen or freeze dried. The coagulum formed during fermentation is sensitive to mechanical treatment. This makes the selection and dimensioning of pipes, valves, pumps, coolers, etc. The pre-treatment of the milk is the same, regardless of whether set or stirred yoghurt is to be produced. It includes standardization of the fat and DM contents, homogenization and heat treatment. The milk storage tanks, from which the milk is pumped to the process line, are not shown in the figure.
It is assumed that the milk has been standardized to the required fat content and pre-pasteurized before entering the line. In the example, standardization of the DM content takes place by adding milk powder or protein powder.
FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS
This glossary defines some commonly used terms in the world of perfume and fragrance. We will add to it when new terminology is introduced in the industry. Processed by means of enfleurage, alcohol extraction or steam distillation. ACCORD: A combination of raw materials blended together to find the proper balance and effect a perfumer desires when creating a fragrance.
The principal constituents of milk are water, fat, proteins, lactose milk sugar and minerals salts. Milk also contains trace amounts of other substances such as pigments, enzymes, vitamins, phospholipids substances with fatlike properties , and gases. The residue left when water and gases are removed is called the dry matter DM or total solids content of the milk. Milk is a very complex product. In order to describe the various constituents of milk and how they are affected by the various stages of treatment in the dairy, it is necessary to resort to chemical terminology.
THE CHEMISTRY OF MILK
Over the last two decades, rapid progress in the field of synthetic biology has opened several avenues for the heterologous de novo production of complex biological compounds, such as biofuels, pharmaceuticals, and food additives in microbial hosts. This minireview addresses the usage of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a microbial cell factory for the production of flavour and aroma compounds, thereby providing a path towards a sustainable and efficient means of producing what are normally rare, and often expensive plant-derived chemicals. Synthetic biology is one of the most rapidly evolving branches of the biological sciences. Numerous examples have been recently reported of the successful implementation of synthetic biology in microorganisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae , such as for the production of valuable biomedical compounds [ 1 ] or biofuels [ 2 , 3 ]. Many different microorganisms, like Yarowia lippolitica or Escherichia coli , have also been utilized as hosts for various synthetic biology applications [ 4 , 5 ]. In this minireview, attention will be focused on the utilization of S. Vanillin , 4-hydroxymethoxybenzaldehyde , is a plant secondary metabolite commonly extracted from the seed pods of the vanilla orchids Vanilla planifolia , Vanilla tahitensis , or Vanilla pompona.
THE CHEMISTRY OF MILK
Our cigarettes are produced in factories across the world, and each brand has its own unique recipe. Cigarettes are made from:. We operate 44 production facilities and produce over billion cigarettes each year. Cigarettes are produced in factories around the world by processing the tobacco leaf, manufacturing the cigarettes, and preparing the final pack. Learn more below.
The selection of ingredients is basic for the production of sausages of uniform standard quality. Although beef, veal and pork are the main meat sausage materials, mutton, poultry and other kinds of meat, together with edible by-products, are also of importance. Apart from meat raw materials, a number of nonmeat ingredients, such as curing salts, sugar, spices and casings, are increasingly used in sausage production.
Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for production of aromatic compounds
Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin , which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone. The word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare , meaning "to smoke through".
Prior to this centre, this facility was available with private enterprises only. Simultaneously this is the only place where one can get training in the area of Fragrance and Flavour Creation. Apart from this a library of standard fragrant material has been created. This Laboratory is supported by a sophisticated quality control and instrumentation division equipped with Gas Liquid Chromatograph. Flavour Laboratory This laboratory is also having necessary flavour grade chemicals, natural essential oils, oleoresins and isolates numbering more than along with balance for creative purpose.
FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS
Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume, which emulates nature's pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people. Perfume comes from the Latin "per" meaning "through" and "fumum," or "smoke. The oil was then burned to scent the air. Today, most perfume is used to scent bar soaps. Some products are even perfumed with industrial odorants to mask unpleasant smells or to appear "unscented.
Наделенный феноменальной памятью и способностями к языкам, он знал шесть азиатских языков, а также прекрасно владел испанским, французским и итальянским. На его лекциях по этимологии яблоку негде было упасть, и он всегда надолго задерживался в аудитории, отвечая на нескончаемые вопросы.
Он говорил авторитетно и увлеченно, не обращая внимания на восторженные взгляды студенток. Беккер был смуглым моложавым мужчиной тридцати пяти лет, крепкого сложения, с проницательным взглядом зеленых глаз и потрясающим чувством юмором.
Шум генераторов, расположенных восемью этажами ниже, звучал сегодня в ее ушах необычайно зловеще. Сьюзан не любила бывать в шифровалке в неурочные часы, поскольку в таких случаях неизменно чувствовала себя запертой в клетке с гигантским зверем из научно-фантастического романа. Она ускорила шаги, чтобы побыстрее оказаться в кабинете шефа.
К рабочему кабинету Стратмора, именуемому аквариумом из-за стеклянных стен, вела узкая лестница, поднимавшаяся по задней стене шифровалки.
Это все равно что номерной почтовый ящик: пользователь получает и отправляет почту, не раскрывая ни своего имени, ни адреса. Компания получает электронные сообщения, адресованные на подставное имя, и пересылает их на настоящий адрес клиента. Компания связана обязательством ни при каких условиях не раскрывать подлинное имя или адрес пользователя.
- Это не доказательство, - сказал Стратмор.
Откуда-то сзади до них долетело эхо чьих-то громких, решительных шагов.
Кто вам дал наш номер. - La Guia Telefonica - желтые страницы. - Да, сэр, мы внесены туда как агентство сопровождения. - Да-да, я и ищу спутницу. - Беккер понял, что совершил какой-то промах.
Вылезай скорее! - послышался женский голос. Мидж все же его разыскала. Он застонал. - Джабба. Скорее вылезай. Он неохотно выполз из-под компьютера.
Хейл извивался на полу, стараясь увидеть, чем занята Сьюзан. - Что. Скажи .