Units industrial rental of heavy fusible metals
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O. Reg. 213/07: FIRE CODE
NCBI Bookshelf. Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity.
Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment. This chapter discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories. The most common equipment-related hazards in laboratories come from devices powered by electricity devices for work with compressed gases, and devices for high or low pressures and temperatures.
Other physical hazards include electromagnetic radiation from lasers and radio-frequency generating devices. Seemingly ordinary hazards such as floods from water-cooled equipment, accidents with rotating equipment and machines or tools for cutting and drilling, noise extremes, slips, trips, falls, lifting, and poor ergonomics account for the greatest frequency of laboratory accidents and injuries.
Understandably, injuries to the hands are very common in the laboratory. Care should be taken to use appropriate gloves when handling laboratory equipment to protect against electrical, thermal, and chemical burns, cuts, and punctures. The use of water as a coolant in laboratory condensers and other equipment is common practice.
Although tap water is often used for these purposes, this practice should be discouraged. In many localities conserving water is essential and makes tap water inappropriate. In addition, the potential for a flood is greatly increased. Refrigerated recirculators can be expensive, but are preferred for cooling laboratory equipment to conserve water and to minimize the impact of floods.
To prevent freezing at the refrigeration coils, using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol as the coolant is prudent. Spills of this mixture are very slippery and must be cleaned thoroughly to prevent slips and falls.
Most flooding occurs when the tubing supplying the water to the condenser disconnects. Hoses can pop off when building water pressure fluctuates, causing irregular flows, or can break when the hose material has deteriorated from long-term or improper use.
Floods also result when exit hoses jump out of the sink from a strong flow pulse or sink drains are blocked by an accumulation of extraneous material. Proper use of hose clamps and maintenance of the entire cooling system or alternative use of a portable cooling bath with suction feed can resolve such problems.
Plastic locking disconnects can make it easy to unfasten water lines without having to unclamp and reclamp secured lines. Some quick disconnects also incorporate check valves, which do not allow flow into or out of either half of the connection when disconnected. This feature allows for disconnecting and reconnecting with minimal spillage of water. To reduce the possibility of overpressurization of fittings or glassware, consider installing a vented pressure relief device on the water supply.
Interlocks are also available that shut off electrical power in the event of loss of coolant flow and are recommended for unattended operations. Electrically powered equipment is used routinely for laboratory operations requiring heating, cooling, agitation or mixing, and pumping. Electrically powered equipment found in the laboratory includes fluid and vacuum pumps, lasers, power supplies, both electrophoresis and electrochemical apparatus, x-ray equipment, stirrers, hot plates, heating mantles, microwave ovens, and ultrasonicators.
Attention must be paid to both the mechanical and the electrical hazards inherent in using these devices. High-voltage and high-power requirements are increasingly prevalent; therefore prudent practices for handling these devices are increasingly necessary. Electric shock is the major electrical hazard.
Although relatively low current of 10 mA poses some danger, 80 to mA can be fatal. In addition, if improperly used, electrical equipment can ignite flammable or explosive vapors. Most of the risks can be minimized by regular proper maintenance and a clear understanding of the correct use of the device. Before beginning any work, all personnel should be shown and trained in the use of all electrical power sources and the location of emergency shutoff switches.
Information about emergency procedures can be found in section 7. Particular caution must be exercised during installation, modification, and repair, as well as during use of the equipment. Trained laboratory personnel should also consult state and local codes and regulations, which may contain special provisions and be more stringent than the NEC rules.
All repair and calibration work on electrical equipment must be carried out by properly trained and qualified personnel. Before modification, installation, or even minor repairs of electrical equipment are carried out, the devices must be deenergized and all capacitors discharged safely. All new electrical equipment should be inspected on receipt for a certification mark.
If the device does not bear one of these certification marks, the device should be inspected by an electrician before it is put into service.
Each person participating in any experiment involving the use of electrical equipment must be aware of all applicable equipment safety issues and be briefed on any potential problems. Trained laboratory personnel can significantly reduce hazards and dangerous behavior by following some basic principles and techniques: checking and rechecking outlet receptacles section 7.
All V outlet receptacles in laboratories should be of the standard design that accepts a three-prong plug and provides a ground connection. Replace two-prong receptacles as soon as feasible, and add a separate ground wire so that each receptacle is wired as shown in Figure 7. Representative design for a three-wire grounded outlet.
The design shown is for A, V service. The specific design will vary with amperage and voltage. It is also possible to fit a receptacle with a ground-fault circuit interrupter GFCI , which disconnects the current if a ground fault is detected. GFCI devices are required by local electrical codes for outdoor receptacles and for selected laboratory receptacles located less than 6 ft 1.
These devices differ in operation and purpose from fuses and circuit breakers, which are designed primarily to protect equipment and prevent electrical fires due to short circuits or other abnormally high current draw situations.
Certain types of GFCIs cause equipment shutdowns at unexpected and inappropriate times; hence, their selection and use need careful planning.
Be aware that GFCIs are not fail-safe devices. They significantly reduce the possibility of fatal shock but do not entirely eliminate it. Locate receptacles that provide electric power for operations in laboratory chemical hoods outside the hood. This location prevents the production of electrical sparks inside the chemical hood when a device is plugged in or disconnected, and it also allows trained laboratory personnel to disconnect electrical devices from outside the hood in case of an accident.
Cords should not be routed in such a way that they can accidentally be pulled out of their receptacles or tripped over. Simple inexpensive plastic retaining strips and ties can be used to route cords safely. For laboratory chemical hoods with airfoils, route the electrical cords under the bottom airfoil so that the sash can be closed completely. Most airfoils are easily removed and replaced with a screwdriver. Fit laboratory equipment plugged into a V or higher receptacle with a standard three-conductor line cord that provides an independent ground connection to the chassis of the apparatus see Figure 7.
Ground all electrical equipment unless it is double-insulated. This type of equipment has a two-conductor line cord that meets national codes and standards.
The use of two-pronged cheaters to connect equipment with three-prong grounded plugs to old-fashioned two-wire outlets is hazardous and should be prohibited. Standard wiring convention for V electric power to equipment. Use a standard three-conductor extension cord of sufficient rating for the connected equipment with an independent ground connection.
In addition, good practice uses only extension cords equipped with a GFCI. Install electrical cables properly, even if only for temporary use, and keep them out of aisles and other traffic areas.
Install overhead racks and floor channel covers if wires must pass over or under walking areas. Do not intermingle signal and power cables in cable trays or panels. Special care is needed when installing and placing water lines used, for example, to cool equipment such as flash lamps for lasers so that they do not leak or produce condensation, which can dampen power cables nearby. Equipment plugged into an electrical receptacle should include a fuse or other overload protection device to disconnect the circuit if the apparatus fails or is overloaded.
This overload protection is particularly useful for equipment likely to be left on and unattended for a long time, such as variable autotransformers e. If equipment does not contain its own built-in overload protection, modify it to provide such protection or replace it with equipment that does.
Overload protection does not protect the trained laboratory personnel from electrocution but does reduce the risk of fire. Laboratory personnel should be certain that all electrical equipment is well maintained, properly located, and safely used. To do this, review the following precautions and make the necessary adjustments prior to working in the laboratory:. All laboratories should have access to a qualified technician who can make routine repairs to existing equipment and modifications to new or existing equipment so that it will meet acceptable standards for electrical safety.
When operating or servicing electrical equipment, be sure to follow basic safety precautions as summarized below. Unless laboratory personnel are specially trained to install or repair high-current or high-voltage equipment, reserve such tasks for trained electrical workers. The following reminders are included for qualified personnel:. The use of water aspirators is discouraged. Their use in filtration or solvent-removal operations involving volatile organic solvents presents a hazard that volatile chemicals will contaminate the wastewater and the sewer, even if traps are in place.
Water and sewer contamination may result in violation of local, state, or federal law. These devices also consume large volumes of water, present a flooding hazard, and can compromise local conservation measures. Distillation or similar operations requiring a vacuum must use a trapping device to protect the vacuum source, personnel, and the environment.
This requirement also applies to oil-free Teflon-lined diaphragm pumps. Normally the vacuum source is a cold trap cooled with dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Even with the use of a trap, the oil in a mechanical vacuum trap can become contaminated and the waste oil must be treated as a hazardous waste. Vent the output of each pump to a proper air exhaust system. This procedure is essential when the pump is being used to evacuate a system containing a volatile toxic or corrosive substance. Failure to observe this precaution results in pumping the untrapped substances into the laboratory atmosphere.
Scrubbing or absorbing the gases exiting the pump is also recommended. Even with these precautions, volatile toxic or corrosive substances may accumulate in the pump oil and thus be discharged into the laboratory atmosphere during future pump use.
Avoid this hazard by draining and replacing the pump oil when it becomes contaminated. Follow procedures recommended by the institution's environmental health and safety office for the safe disposal of pump oil contaminated with toxic or corrosive substances. General-purpose laboratory vacuum pumps should have a record of use to prevent cross-contamination or reactive chemical incompatibility problems.
Belt-driven mechanical pumps must have protective guards.
International Standards of Practice for Inspecting Commercial Properties
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Search for the part s number you wish to receive samples. Or, visit the sample center page. We offer heavy-duty OEMs a diverse mix of standard and custom engineered solutions for their electromechanical switching, power control and circuit protection applications. The Technical Center provides you with downloads and links to the most up-to-date resources on our commercial vehicle product lineup as well as answers to some of our most commonly asked questions. Littelfuse acquired Cole Hersee in to offer their customers a more extensive portfolio of products in the commercial vehicle market.
Welding Terms and Definitions Dictionary
Argon Unit Conversion gas, liquid. Argon is a chemically inert, colorless, odorless, non-toxic gas. Norris Cylinder Specifications. The regulator will have "B" fittings. Empty cylinders, dry ice containers and cylinder valves. Well I'm interested in getting one. Your Complete Oxygen Solution. You will find the best deals on Acetylene B Tank and other equipment here. A full 80 cu ft. Cylinder Sizes.
Acetylene Gas Cylinder Refill
The inspector should inspect from ground level, eaves or rooftop if a rooftop access door exists :. The terms below govern this Agreement. We will perform a visual inspection of the building and provide you with a written report identifying the defects that we 1 observed and 2 deemed material. Unless otherwise indicated in writing, we will not test for the presence of radon, a harmful gas. Unless otherwise indicated in writing, we will not test for mold.
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Installation instructions are provided with most hardware products, but not frames and doors, as commercial door manufacturers do not provide print instructions with their products. We recommend hiring a licensed contractor or experienced handyman to install the doors we supply, as certain applications may prove to be too complex for a novice. Furthermore, all products provided by Trudoor are intended for commercial construction. While we do not offer installation or field repair services, our support team has put together a collection of guides to help assist you with proper installation of the products that we provide. Click on one of the following links to view or download PDF instructional guides.
Welding Terms and Definitions Dictionary
Alexander Donagi and Avraham Aladjem. At present, there is no handbook, manual or other single source which contains the essential data on the various occupational hazards which exist in specific occupations. Therefore, occupational safety and health OSH experts must search information in the very extensive relevant professional literature and databases and, sometimes, have to scan scores of technical documents. Such searches are complicated, tedious, time-consuming and require access to specialized information sources. As a result, quite frequently an OSH worker comes to the workplace without adequate preliminary technical preparation. This was realized many years ago.
Bismuth is a white, crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tinge. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivity is lower than any metal except mercury. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall effect of any metal that is, the greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field. Bismuth is stable to oxygen and water but dissolves in concentrated nitric air. All bismuth salts form insoluble compounds when put into water.
Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon pressure relieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal and emergency vents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or bottom of the tank if vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. If unstable liquids are stored, the effects of heat or gas resulting from polymerization, decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity shall be taken into account. The total capacity of both normal and emergency venting devices shall be not less than that derived from Table H except as provided in subdivision e or f of this subdivision.
Стратмор кивнул. Сейф Бигглмана представляет собой гипотетический сценарий, когда создатель сейфа прячет внутри его ключ, способный его открыть. Чтобы ключ никто не нашел, Танкадо проделал то же самое с Цифровой крепостью. Он спрятал свой ключ, зашифровав его формулой, содержащейся в этом ключе.
У алтаря кто-то кричал, за спиной у него слышались тяжелые шаги. Беккер толкнул двойную дверь и оказался в некотором подобии кабинета.
Если искомый пароль содержал десять знаков, то компьютер программировался так, чтобы перебирать все комбинации от 0000000000 до 9999999999, и рано или поздно находил нужное сочетание цифр.
Этот метод проб и ошибок был известен как применение грубой силы. На это уходило много времени, но математически гарантировало успех. Когда мир осознал возможности шифровки с помощью грубой силы, пароли стали все длиннее и длиннее.
Компьютерное время, необходимое для их угадывания, растягивалось на месяцы и в конце концов - на годы.
Идиот! - в сердцах воскликнула. - Ты только посмотри. Сквозь строй дважды отверг этот файл. Линейная мутация. И все-таки он пошел в обход.
Интересно, о чем он. У Бринкерхоффа подогнулись колени.
А как же проваливай и умри. ГЛАВА 36 Ручное отключение. Сьюзан отказывалась что-либо понимать.