Manufacturing building citrus fruit
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New robotic palletizing arm showcased at Bee Sweet Citrus Processing Lab
This article focuses on citrus fruit from a part of medieval Europe that is well covered by written and iconographical sources, and presents both these fruit and this unique Citrus seed discovery in France. After having defined the limits of the consulted records, we will comment on the knowledge that the medieval sources provide on fruit trees and their fruit, their symbolic meaning within a French-Christian context, the places exploited and the growing methods used, their economic status, commercialization and citrus fruit eating habits.
This diversity of documentation concerns society at large, even if the culinary treatises mostly concern the food consumption of the highest levels of aristocracy. Others, on the contrary, are signed by the chefs of royal families such as Taillevent, alias Guillaume Tirel, who reproduced recipes from Le Viandier.
One of the characteristics of medieval aristocratic cuisine was cosmopolitanism, and indeed the same foods are to be found in most of the western treatises. In fact certain recipes, or rather the names of the recipes, were hardly changed in all or almost all of the references, 9 and it was not until they were written down that they were subject to numerous transformations by the copyists of the time.
In fact, according to J. Brunet and O. In fact, sweet oranges were introduced very late, in the s, as was first attested in Italy by S. Does this term, which designates a candied fruit, refer to a citron Citrus medica or a derived species such as lemon or lime? These lists indicate the amount of money leude received on the goods traded in a commercial marketplace.
In this paper, the written sources concern the eastern Iberian Peninsula from Narbonne to Valence , from the Mediterranean coast to inland Cerdagne , and several references outside of these borders.
Seaboard and land trade taxes were taken into account. The tax list of Narbonne was the oldest document studied; the text is dated to , but our copy was made much later, and it is therefore necessary to consider it with precaution. Often they accompany biblical texts, but they are mainly found in scientific books, in particular those concerning agricultural treatises.
Furthermore, herbariums and health treatises show a particular interest in fruit trees. Furthermore, these fruits and vegetables were sometimes found in religious ceremonial and secular meals. Agronomical treatises, illustrated cultivation scenes in the Books of Hours , on calendars and tacuins inform us of their cultivation in the country of origin of the author, or of their exotic nature and where and how they were grown.
Trade tax lists document their geographical origin and the commercial value of the fresh fruit or the transformed version, as in the case of citrus fruit. As for the culinary treatises, they inform as to how the fruits were consumed, their culinary role and the social status of their consumers. Pollen grains, leaves and seeds, but also pieces of fruit pericarp or rind 28 from citron, lemon and sour orange were discovered at several different archaeological sites, covering different periods of time, in the eastern Mediterranean and Europe.
The macroremains were preserved either in a waterlogged, mineralized, sub-fossilized state seeds or in a desiccated state leaves and fruit. Even if waste pits or latrines were frequently used in urban areas, the layers were often subjects to progressive drying during burying. Plant remains are usually preserved by mineralization and not easily identifiable for certain groups; therefore, it is highly probable that the mineralized Citrus seeds discovered were simply not differentiated from other seeds.
In any case, it seems that the eating habits and limited access to these fruits, which were reserved for the more wealthy families, are also some of the reasons for the low records of this species in the archaeobotanical spectra. Archaeobotanical discoveries allow us to document use contexts that are different from those of written documents and drawings. Through the consumption of fruit, researchers can follow their expansion within a geographical area and over a specific period of time.
Moreover, for a long time artists were very imprecise when it came to illustrating their works. The oldest drawings are from medicinal plant reference books, for medical use or in health treatises. These works do not allow the naming of the species represented and as G. Around the year , many translations into French were made which reveal that this book was not only appreciated by doctors but also by surgeons, apothecaries and herbalists.
The stylistic differences between the numerous copies are noticeable 35 and each section is often decorated with a miniature which covers the width of about one or two columns of text.
Indeed in some of the copies, the fruit hanging from the trees are yellow, 40 but they can also be brown 41 or orange, 42 and sometimes they are both brown and yellow on the same tree. Lieutaghi explains, 45 this classification may have been due to a phonetic confusion between these two plants, unless an unfortunate association was made because of the lemon-yellow citrine colour of these two fruits. On the other hand, the citron trees are either drawn as trees, resembling other citrus fruit trees, or as bushes with many branches which radiate out from the roots.
This is the same for the herbariums: both the orange 55 and the lemon tree 56 are represented as balls; it is only their colour of their fruit which differentiates them. These increasingly realistic drawings enable us to precisely determine the species more frequently. During the s, Lucca della Robbia, from Florence, and his workshop apprentices sculpted many realistically coloured friezes of Renaissance majolica where fruits, vegetables and other plant elements intertwine.
Thus plums, quinces, cucumbers, lemons and pine cones enlace Saint Mary Magdalene, 61 while flowers, plums, quinces, oranges or citrons, pomegranates, aubergines and pickles encircle Saint John the Baptist. In this harbour zone an active seaborne trade existed, with many products being imported from countries bordering the Indian Ocean. Grafting was only mentioned for the grapefruit tree, and only that it should be carried out with and on the same tree. These mostly used the juice of the fruit to mix with wine as a sauce for partridges, chicks, capons or even fish, such as mullet; 82 the name of this recipe is Mulet est dit mungon en Languedoc.
This realisation is hardly surprising considering that the pronounced sweet and sour Mediterranean flavour is shared by Italy, Languedoc and Catalonia. This treatise does not mention the use of oranges.
If citrus fruits are hardly mentioned in the Venetian Libro per cuoco , 87 partially written around 2. Further north, according to domestic accounts, citrus fruits were being exported to England, 99 with customs documents containing several entries of oranges but no lemons.
One text for London in listed three cargoes containing oranges; after it lists only one cargo of oranges and cork. In Italy, it is common to find an orange tree planted next to a statue of the Madonna or in the background of a painting representing the Virgin Mary surrounded by saints.
In close symbolic resemblance, the lemon tree is sometimes associated with the orange tree. The saints are surmounted by two citrus trees or as in the San Zeno Altarpiece showing the Madonna surrounded by chanting angels and lemon and orange garlands surmounting above the figures.
Just as often, it is the lemon which symbolizes salvation, as in the paintings of the Virgin and Child produced in the Netherlands at the end of the Middle Ages. It is also said to have healing properties, particularly against poison.
In these paintings the orange and lemon are placed cut in half, and next to them the painter frequently displays a slice of the fruit with the seeds and knife in sight, as in the Madonna and Child Nursing , painted around by an anonymous Flemish school master.
It is also a lemon tree which is associated with the host in the Miracle of the Profaned Host painted by Uccello around next to the tree, which is adorned with many yellow fruits, two angels and two devils are fighting over the body of a woman in front of the altar. In his honour she had oranges trees painted on the walls of his manor, Haute-Folie.
The first documented archaeobotanical references in this area date back to the modern period. Sweet orange Citrus sinensis and mandarin seeds Citrus cf. This constitutes the first direct evidence of the funerary use of this species north of the Alps. This rarity is a little surprising since the fruit contains numerous seeds which are robust enough to be preserved.
Location of the town of Bordeaux in southern France; b. Topographical map showing the location of the excavated site of Saint-Michel near the Garonne river.
Six archaeological test pits were opened fig. Location of the six archaeological soundings Sd. The investigated latrine located on the sd. Latrine 6. Proye-Guimard and N. Larre, D. Delage and L. The second building was equipped with a stone outhouse, set back from the street. The latter LAT. The dimensions suggest it was created for the common use of different occupants the overall length measured 2.
The fill was mechanically extracted, which exposed three undisturbed layers fig. The total number of remains extracted from the subsequent samples was estimated relative to the initial volume. The moisture in the sediment preserved three quarters of the remains or Sixteen taxa were identified: lentils Lens culinaris , broad beans Vicia faba var.
In this last category, which represented No rare or exotic plants were found. However, at Duburg Place, behind the church, sd. These played a major role in the polarisation of the habitat and took advantage of this significant site within the vicinity of the Garonne river.
Thus, at the end of the Middle Ages, the activities of the quarter seem centred on the zone used as a market place, linking the town to its harbour activities and river waterway traffic.
Most of the population, from the rich merchants to the poorer artisans, lived off the river activities and the exchanges that took place there. The social categories mentioned in the archives of the modern period cited merchants and artisans but also aristocrats and lawyers, though this does not seem to have concerned the elite of the city, who were located further north. This quarter welcomed, therefore, an urban type of population rather than peasants, which was the case in other parishes where winegrowers were one of the biggest corporate bodies.
This quarter opened onto two harboured areas, with French vessels moored close to the city, and further south those heading down the Garonne river. For the other Citrus species, we used images and descriptions published in Pagnoux et al. On the first one, the apex is prolonged with a curved beak and the radicle zone is elongated and lopsided fig.
On the second one, the apex is slightly elongated with a triangular and rounded shape. The radicle zone is rounded fig. The two seeds have a pronounced ventral crest, but the base of the first ends in a peduncle and the second one is simply rounded.
The breadth is taken from the ventral view of the seed photograph C. This appearance eliminates the possibility of it being lemon C. The surface of the orange and lime seeds appears winding and this pattern is most pronounced on the orange. No winding pattern was visible on the Bordeaux seeds, which are closer to the pitted appearance of the mandarin seeds; however, it is possible that the surfaces were altered due to their prolonged contact with the accumulated matter in the ditch.
Even though certain characteristics are reminiscent of orange seeds the outline and curvature of the apex and the hilum zones , the anatomical details of the surfaces resemble the mandarin. Consequently, it is difficult to decide to which species of Citrus the archaeological seeds belong. The three other less well-preserved pips could also come from fruits of this taxon. Aristocratic families, newly-rich merchants and artisans living in the centre of the town acquired country houses on the outskirts of Bordeaux surrounded by pleasure gardens which included trees, bushes, local or exotic flowers and a fruit and vegetable garden.
Some religious establishments such as the convents of the Carthusians and Carmelites had such remarkable gardens that they extended into the ecclesial space.
Moreover, the aristocratic elite possessed orangeries and heated glasshouses, and purchased their plants from private or royal nurseries.
Citrus is grown in two belts on both sides of the equator from about 20 to 40 degrees of latitude Figure All citrus is thought to originate in the Himalayan region of southwestern China and northern India. Columbus brought citrus seeds to the western hemisphere in and planted them first on the island of Hispaniola, now called Haiti Figure
Citrus fruits are the highest-value fruit crop in terms of international trade. There are two main markets for citrus fruit :. Oranges account for the majority of citrus production but the industry also sees significant quantities of grapefruits , pomeloes , lemons , and limes. While the origin of citrus fruits cannot be precisely identified, researchers believe they began to appear in Southeast Asia at least 4, BC.
Citrus Juice Extractor
Norwegian to the rescue for Mediterranean oranges
Citrus Systems Inc. The new facility came on line in December of and will provide a platform for growth for years to come. Citrus Systems has always been and will continue to be committed to producing the highest quality products with the highest level of service for many years to come. Phone: Citrus Sun and Partner Products.
The robotic arm has a nearly seven-foot reach and a pound payload capacity. It can also be used for inspection, packaging and machine tending. The equipment was installed, customized, calibrated and integrated into the existing packing line by Klippenstein Corporation of Fresno.
Alvey palletizers get the Halos clementines ready to go to shipping. Source: Paramount Citrus Packing Company. Natural gas-driven fuel cells from Bloom Energy create 1. This pre-grading line is the first step in sorting, which is followed by a final grading line.
Lucie and Indian River Counties. For citrus growers still suffering from Hurricane Irma, know this — we are providing recovery funding as quickly as possible, and we will not waiver in our support. Takasago is underwriting the cost of every new tree planted through this partnership to ensure a sustainable grapefruit industry in Florida. Additionally, Takasago has entered into a multi-year agreement for the supply of grapefruit peel oil, which is a key ingredient in flavor and fragrance manufacturing. Peace River employs people in its modern and efficient citrus grove and processing operations, which are located throughout Central Florida. Peace River also supplies juices and citrus by-products such as pulp, essence and oil to private label bottlers, retailers and flavor companies in both domestic and international markets.
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In the broadest sense lime refers to natural limestone rock deposits of calcium carbonate: limestone, marble and chalk, and dolomite stone of a similar nature. Lime is a generic term, but by strict definition it only embraces manufactured forms of lime — quicklime CaO and hydrated lime Ca OH 2. It is, however, sometimes used to describe limestone products, which can be confusing.
Phenylacetone Cook. Phenylacetone phenylpropanone"" Ketones, aromatic, without other oxygen Ketone-alcohols and ketone-aldehydes Ketone-phenols and ketones with other ox Anthraquinone Quinones excl. Phenylacetic acid and. The commercial preparation of LAS is nominally constituted of a mixture of 20 congeners of secondary 4-sulfophenylalkanes secondary C 10 - to C 13 -LAS , 18 of which are chiral
A conflict is currently flaring up between the EU and the major citrus exporters outside of the European market. The root of the conflict is an unwanted fungus called Citrus Black Spot CBS , which is now deemed to be potentially so destructive to the European citrus industry that Brussels is considering tightening the current import regulations. There were great expectations to the main conclusions of the report and the evaluation of the risks to citrus production in Europe. It may be an advantage to come from a country outside the EU, and from research activities with no ties to the citrus industry," says Rafoss.
This article focuses on citrus fruit from a part of medieval Europe that is well covered by written and iconographical sources, and presents both these fruit and this unique Citrus seed discovery in France. After having defined the limits of the consulted records, we will comment on the knowledge that the medieval sources provide on fruit trees and their fruit, their symbolic meaning within a French-Christian context, the places exploited and the growing methods used, their economic status, commercialization and citrus fruit eating habits. This diversity of documentation concerns society at large, even if the culinary treatises mostly concern the food consumption of the highest levels of aristocracy. Others, on the contrary, are signed by the chefs of royal families such as Taillevent, alias Guillaume Tirel, who reproduced recipes from Le Viandier. One of the characteristics of medieval aristocratic cuisine was cosmopolitanism, and indeed the same foods are to be found in most of the western treatises.
Soil samples should be taken and analysed by a professional scientist to determine the type, strength, texture, depth, chemical composition and drainage of the soil. Tillage is expensive, but crucial to loosen soil layers so roots of trees can easily penetrate the soil. Chemicals such as lime and phosphate should be incorporated into the soil long before planting because they take time to break down and become available to trees. Planting holes of 0. A north-south row orientation allows for an even distribution of light over the total tree canopy. Choosing the right cultivar is one of the most important long-term decisions a prospective citrus producer has to make, as it will determine profitability and sustainable production. Consider market demand and the suitability of a cultivar to your production environment when choosing cultivars to plant.
The artist Kathleen Ryan in her New York studio. Emiliano Granado. By Alice Newell-Hanson.