Manufacturing fabrication chemical fibers and threads
Glass fiber is made by blending raw materials, melting them in a three-stage furnace, extruding the molten glass through bushings in the bottom of the forehearth, cooling the filaments with water, and then applying a chemical size. The filaments then are gathered and wound into a package. Fiberglass is the original fiber reinforcement of modern composites. Toledo, Ohio , record the key developments that step-changed the industry from producing discontinuous-fiber glass wool to making continuous glass filaments with diameters as small as 4 microns 4 millionths of a meter and thousands of feet long.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: OFS Fiber Manufacturing
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- How is Bamboo Textile made ?
- How is fabric created?
- The making of glass fiber
- Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
- Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
- Man-made fibre
- Graphene fiber: a new material platform for unique applications
- Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics by a simple chemical modification
- Carbon Fiber Education Center
- Table of Contents
How is Bamboo Textile made ?
The present invention provides a method of making a carbon nanotubes fiber by providing a polyethylene terephthalate substrate; contacting the polyethylene terephthalate substrate with a polyvinyl alcohol polymer solution to form a polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer on the polyethylene terephthalate substrate; contacting the polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer with a carbon nanotube solution, wherein the carbon nanotubes solution comprises one or more carbon nanotubes; forming a nanotube layer on the polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer; delaminating the polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer from the polyethylene terephthalate substrate to release a composite fiber layer; stretching the composite fiber layer; and drying the composite fiber layer.
Without limiting the scope of the invention, its background is described in connection with making carbon nanotubes and more specifically, compositions and methods of making fibers from single-walled nanotubes, double-walled nanotubes, or multi-walled nanotubes.
Generally, carbon nanotubes CNTs are allotropes of carbon with a nanostructure that can have an extremely high length-to-diameter ratio. Carbon nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family and their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube is in the order of a few nanometers, while they can be up to several millimeters in length and may be categorized as single-walled nanotubes SWNTs and multi-walled nanotubes MWNTs.
Generally, carbon nanotubes are one of the strongest and stiffest materials, in terms of tensile strength and elastic modulus. This strength results from the covalent sp 2 bonds formed between the individual carbon atoms.
These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science, as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat.
The present application discloses a method of making a carbon nanotube fibers by providing a polyethylene terephthalate substrate; contacting the polyethylene terephthalate substrate with a polyvinyl alcohol polymer solution to form a polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer on the polyethylene terephthalate substrate; contacting the polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer with a carbon nanotube solution, wherein the carbon nanotubes solution comprises one or more carbon nanotubes; forming a nanotube layer on the polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer; delaminating the polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer from the polyethylene terephthalate substrate to release a composite fiber layer; stretching the composite fiber layer; and drying the composite fiber layer.
The method includes the step of twisting the composite fiber layer and or drawing the composite fiber layer into a composite fiber yarn.
The polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer may be annealed or crosslinked. The present application may also include the step of coating a second layer on the composite fiber layer, wherein the second layer comprises nanotube coats, nanofibers, polymer nanofibers, inorganic nanofibers, metal nanofibers or nano-materials, graphene nanoparticles, inorganic nanopaticles, metal nanopaticles, and multilayers nanotube coated polymer layer.
The present application discloses a method of making a carbon nanotube fiber comprising by providing a polyester substrate; contacting the polyester substrate with a polymer solution to form a polymer layer on the polyester substrate; contacting the polymer layer with a carbon nanotube solution; forming a nanotube layer on the polymer layer; delaminating the polymer layer from the polyester substrate to release a composite fiber layer; and stretching the composite fiber layer.
The present application also includes a method of making a composite fiber by contacting a polymer coated substrate with a carbon nanotube solution to form a nanotube composite fiber layer, wherein the polymer coated substrate comprises a polymer layer in contact with a substrate; delaminating the nanotube composite fiber layer from the substrate to release a composite fiber layer; and stretching the composite fiber layer.
The Young's modulus may be about 84 GPa and the tensile strength may be about 3. The carbon nanotube composition may be drawn carbon nanotube yarn. For a more complete understanding of the features and advantages of the present invention, reference is now made to the detailed description of the invention along with the accompanying figures and in which:. While the making and using of various embodiments of the present invention are discussed in detail below, it should be appreciated that the present invention provides many applicable inventive concepts that can be embodied in a wide variety of specific contexts.
The specific embodiments discussed herein are merely illustrative of specific ways to make and use the invention and do not delimit the scope of the invention. To facilitate the understanding of this invention, a number of terms are defined below.
Terms defined herein have meanings as commonly understood by a person of ordinary skill in the areas relevant to the present invention. The terminology herein is used to describe specific embodiments of the invention, but their usage does not delimit the invention, except as outlined in the claims. Fibers need good tensile strength. The Young's modulus, E, can be calculated by dividing the tensile stress by the tensile strain:. For example, the present application discloses flexible transparent conductor with between 0.
The wavelength will be between nm. In addition, the skilled artisan will recognize that the thickness of the substrate may affect these properties and tailor the parameters to produce a desired transparency, and conduction. The present application also simplifies the overall coating procedure; to reduce the number of steps necessary from five steps as seen in the prior art to three steps utilizing an sonication method and a proper selection of organic solvent, e. Numerous flexible electronic devices require electrically conductive flexible films, which are optically transparent to visible light e.
Films have been prepared using several coating materials and methods, including semiconducting oxides of: tin indium, zinc, cadmium, or metals such as silver. Transparent and electrically conductive coatings on flexible films will be useful for electronic device fabrications particularly for flat panel displays, touch screen panels, solar cells, and polymer light emitting diodes LEDs.
Current transparent conductive coatings mainly utilize Indium Tin oxide ITO material, which is deposited by chemical vapor deposition CVD , sputtering or other methods on a substrate, followed by an annealing. ITO films on flexible substrates are inferior in terms of flexibility.
Hence, there is a need to find a novel alternative for ITO. Carbon nanotubes CNTs are the material of ever-increasing interest due to their excellent electronic, physical and chemical properties. Moreover, metallic SWNTs generally represent the minority fraction in the mixture except the one synthesized from a laser ablation method. Certain polymeric substrates are much lighter and more flexible than glass substrates while being transparent, and are therefore, preferred for use over glass substrate for light weight and flexible electronic devices.
Recently, polyethylene terephthalate PET and polyethylene naphthalate PEN substrates have been reported as potential substrates for the fabrication of polymeric transistors. The two types of polymer films have relatively high optical transmittance at nm wavelengths which render them suitable as substrate for optical display and plastic electronic applications.
In previous published work, CNTs were dispersed in an aqueous solution using a surfactant TritonX or SDS to make a stable solution; however, the surfactant adsorbed on the surface of CNTs will decrease the conductivity since the surfactant will act as an insulator: the surfactant is likely to obstruct the contact among nanotubes and hence prevent them from contacting one another.
Therefore, removing the surfactant makes the transparent conductive coatings more conductive. Geng et al. When the film was further immersed in various acids, they observed an improvement in the conductivity with a negligible change in transparency. They attributed this enhancement to the removal of surfactant, resulting in a dense film which improved the cross-junction between SWNT networks. To date, however, no convincing results have been reported meeting the performance needed for flexible electronic devices.
Part of the variability in results is due not only to the varying sample characteristics of the SWNTs but also the different synthesis methods and purification methods.
In addition, there is a trade-off between conductivity and transmittance. When the conductivity goes up, the transmittance goes down, and every research group studies a different system and reports results in different emphasis. Therefore, it is very difficult to refer to published results and draw a firm conclusion. The present application discloses single walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by different methods and tested to investigate the best candidate SWNT without using surfactant with the flexible substrates.
The flexible substrate is coated with a polymer layer. The nanotubes were dispersed in methanol without using surfactant with sonication. A flexible substrate was then dipped into the solution while sonicating to coat SWNTs on film. Several factors, such as purity, type of carbon nanotube, metallic and semiconducting SWNT and different substrates, were evaluated to find the best performance.
The present application discloses metallic, purified HiPco SWNTs on a PEN substrate with no surfactant use to achieve the best performance in considering both electrical conductivity and transmittance in the nm wavelength range.
The mixture was then sonicated with a probe sonicator. The dipping can be repeated or extended for different times to obtain thicker SWNT coating on a film. The coated film was then dried at an ambient temperature for 5 minutes.
Preparations of coated samples were done by coating the substrate on both sides with a dip coating method using PET substrate. The comparison of 4-probe sheet resistance and transmittance for samples prepared using various CNTs with up to three coatings are shown in Table 1 below. The SWNTs made by laser ablation gave the lowest sheet resistivity, i. However, the laser CNT is not commercially available. See Table 2 below.
Sample 2 2 94 93 As the number of coatings on the PET or PEN substrate increase, the conductivity increases but the transmittance decreases. Thus, there is a trade-off between conductivity and transmittance. PEN substrate was dipped in the solution while the solution was being bath-sonicated to coat CNTs onto the film.
The longer dipping time gave the thicker coating of CNTs Table 2. This simple coating method was achieved by the proper use of both probe and bath sonication with a good selection of solvent such as methanol. Unlike prior art approaches which require the use of a surfactant, here we use only a low boiling point solvent such as methanol to coat SWNTs on a flexible substrate. As mentioned before, the high electrical conductivity should be associated only with metallic SWNTs, and all of the available production methods for SWNTs yield a mixture of metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes.
Wang et al. They also reported that when the separated metallic fraction was dispersed in thin conductive polymer film and the metallic SWNTs enhanced electrical conductivity of the resulting nanocomposites significantly, compared with the film made using non-separated purified nanotube sample. The electrical conductivity for the unseparated sample was 2.
The present application also uses a metallic enriched sample known in the art e. Sun of Clemson University for sample preparations. The unseparated SWNT was produced from an arc-discharge method, and both separated metallic and semiconducting nanotube samples were coated on a PET substrate and compared their performances.
The comparison in Table 3 below, clearly shows that the film coated with the metallic SWNT is more conductive than the semiconducting as well as the mixture of SWNTs at the same transmittance level. The results show that it is a significant challenge to take full advantage of the separated metallic SWNTs for making excellent transparent conductive film with the highest conductivity.
ITO is the preferred choice for conductive coating material on glass substrate. However, ITO has some limitations with flexible substrates: the film coated with ITO is brittle due to inorganic material; therefore, it is a great concern for flexible display applications.
It is known that CNTs can resist mechanical test such as bending or crumpling with little loss of conductivity.
We believe the flexibility provided by the use of SWNTs lead to open opportunities for the construction of flexible electronic circuits and devices. The properties of PEN film are similar to PET but PEN film offers improved performance over PET in the areas of dimensional stability, stiffness, UV weathering resistance, low oligomer content, tensile strength, hydrolysis resistance and chemical resistance. In addition, the present application discloses a difference of surface energy between PEN and PET by a contact angle measurement.
With DI water, three droplets at different regions of the same piece of film were used for the measurement, and at least two pieces of film were used in order to obtain reliable contact angle measurement. The PEN film is more hydrophobic with a contact angle of 85 degrees compared with the PET film having the angle of 69 degrees, and the standard deviation of this measurement was less than 3 degree. The higher hydrophobicity with PEN film is due to the difference in chemical composition between the two substrates.
In order to further understand the differences shown by the two substrates, AFM surface image study of the substrates coated with SWNT was conducted.
The comparative surface roughness showed that PEN 4. This trend does not correlate with the crystallinity of the polymers, i. A higher degree of crystallinity often results in a rougher surface. The higher surface roughness of the polymer substrate does not favor the adhesion of SWNT but it does in this case.
Aromatic compounds are known to interact with graphite, and consequently with the graphitic sidewalls of CNTs. This kind of physisorption and noncovalent functionalization of CNT with organic molecules does not significantly perturb the atomic structure of the CNT. Thus, it is understood that aromatic rings in substrate adheres to the surface of CNT better. In addition, it is believed that the adhesion is strengthened by a hydrophobic interaction as well. This generates hydroxyl groups on the surface of the glass and the hydrophilic glass surface yielded no adhering CNT.
The fresh hydrophilic surface was thoroughly rinsed with deionized water, and dried.
How is fabric created?
Bamboo manufacturing is not a new trade. The fast growing bamboo plant has been used for centuries. What can you NOT make out of bamboo?
Hydrophobization of cotton fabrics was carried out with the use of bifunctional polysiloxanes with various contents of functional groups. Polysiloxanes contained in their structure groups capable of bonding to substrates trialkoxysilyl or glycidyl ones and fluoroalkyl groups showing surface activity. Two methods of surface modification were compared: 1 a one-step method via the chemical modification of fabrics with solutions of bifunctional polysiloxanes and 2 a two-step method—via preliminary modification of fabrics with silica sol followed by chemical modification with solutions of bifunctional polysiloxanes. The hydrophobicity was determined by measuring the water contact angle by drop profile tensiometry.
The making of glass fiber
Account Options Sign in. If in this completely frozen state they were thawed before the fire, they recovered their animation. The air was doubtless at first unfit for the respiration of warm-blooded animals, and we find the higher forms of life coming gradually into existence as we approach the present period of a purer air. Calculations lead us to conclude that the amount of carbon thus removed in the form of carbonic acid has been so enormous, I must observe that a certain amount of resistance in the cross wire is necessary to produce the maximum effect. If the resistance be too small, the electro-magnet does not acquire sufficient magnetism ; and if it be too great, though the magnetism becomes stronger, the increase of resistance more than counterbalances its effect. But the effects already described are far inferior to those obtained by causing them to take place in the cross
Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
Industrial Chemistry. Methods of determining hardness 57 Some problems on lime soda process zeolites. Corrosion of boiler units 91 Water analysis 93 Chemical and physical. Solids Suspended solids Dissolved solids Acidity Total.
The raw material used to make carbon fiber is called the precursor. All of these materials are organic polymers, characterized by long strings of molecules bound together by carbon atoms. The exact composition of each precursor varies from one company to another and is generally considered a trade secret.
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
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Production and Ginning of Cotton W. Stanley Anthony. Cotton Yarn Manufacturing Phillip J. Wool Industry D. Silk Industry J.
There are three basic steps required for fabric production. The first step in creating fabric is yarn production. Here, the raw materials that have been harvested and processed are transformed from raw fibers into yarn and threads. This is done by spinning the fibers. Spinning can be done by hand, but this process is quite tedious and time consuming. These days, the vast majority of spinning is done by spinning wheel. The fibers are drawn across the wheel, and as it spins, the fibers are collected on a cylindrical object called a bobbin. The bobbin holds the spun fibers, which are now connected into a long strand of thread or yarn.
Man-made fibre , fibre whose chemical composition , structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. Man-made fibres are spun and woven into a huge number of consumer and industrial products, including garments such as shirts, scarves, and hosiery; home furnishings such as upholstery, carpets, and drapes; and industrial parts such as tire cord, flame-proof linings, and drive belts. The chemical compounds from which man-made fibres are produced are known as polymers , a class of compounds characterized by long, chainlike molecules of great size and molecular weight. Many of the polymers that constitute man-made fibres are the same as or similar to compounds that make up plastics, rubbers, adhesives, and surface coatings. Indeed, polymers such as regenerated cellulose, polycaprolactam, and polyethylene terephthalate , which have become familiar household materials under the trade names rayon, nylon , and Dacron trademark , respectively, are also made into numerous nonfibre products, ranging from cellophane envelope windows to clear plastic soft-drink bottles.
Graphene fiber: a new material platform for unique applications
Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability.
Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics by a simple chemical modification
The recent surge in using wearable personalized devices has made it increasingly important to have flexible textile-based sensor alternatives that can be comfortably worn and can sense a wide range of body strains. Typically fabricated from rigid materials such as metals or semiconductors, conventional strain sensors can only withstand small strains and result in bulky, inflexible, and hard-to-wear devices. Textile strain sensors offer a new generation of devices that combine strain sensing functionality with wearability and high stretchability.
Also called graphite fiber or carbon graphite, carbon fiber consists of very thin strands of the element carbon. These fibers have high tensile strength and are extremely strong for their size. In fact, one form of carbon fiber—the carbon nanotube —is considered the strongest material available. Carbon fiber applications include construction, engineering, aerospace, high-performance vehicles, sporting equipment, and musical instruments. In the field of energy, carbon fiber is used in the production of windmill blades, natural gas storage, and fuel cells for transportation.
Carbon Fiber Education Center
The present invention provides a method of making a carbon nanotubes fiber by providing a polyethylene terephthalate substrate; contacting the polyethylene terephthalate substrate with a polyvinyl alcohol polymer solution to form a polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer on the polyethylene terephthalate substrate; contacting the polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer with a carbon nanotube solution, wherein the carbon nanotubes solution comprises one or more carbon nanotubes; forming a nanotube layer on the polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer; delaminating the polyvinyl alcohol polymer layer from the polyethylene terephthalate substrate to release a composite fiber layer; stretching the composite fiber layer; and drying the composite fiber layer. Without limiting the scope of the invention, its background is described in connection with making carbon nanotubes and more specifically, compositions and methods of making fibers from single-walled nanotubes, double-walled nanotubes, or multi-walled nanotubes. Generally, carbon nanotubes CNTs are allotropes of carbon with a nanostructure that can have an extremely high length-to-diameter ratio. Carbon nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family and their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube is in the order of a few nanometers, while they can be up to several millimeters in length and may be categorized as single-walled nanotubes SWNTs and multi-walled nanotubes MWNTs. Generally, carbon nanotubes are one of the strongest and stiffest materials, in terms of tensile strength and elastic modulus. This strength results from the covalent sp 2 bonds formed between the individual carbon atoms. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science, as well as potential uses in architectural fields.
Table of Contents
Springer Shop Amazon. Concise Encyclopedia of Plastics. Donald V.