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Lamp , a device for producing illumination , consisting originally of a vessel containing a wick soaked in combustible material, and subsequently such other light-producing instruments as gas and electric lamps. The lamp was invented at least as early as 70, bce. Originally it consisted of a hollowed-out rock filled with moss or some other absorbent material that was soaked with animal fat and ignited. In the Mediterranean area and the Middle East , the earliest lamp had a shell shape.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: 40 inch bluetooth Led shop light.
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A Brief History of Lighting
Without the light bulb, there would be no nightlife. However, creating a steady and affordable source of illumination was not as easy as many history textbooks suggest. The modern light bulb is the result of many innovators' work and continuous improvements over years. The First Artificial Sources of Light.
Before the arrival of electric lighting, people used a variety of tricks for navigating their neighborhoods at night. In The Downs, an area near the English Channel, patches of chalky soil were used as beacons known as down lanterns.
In wooded areas, bark was strategically cut from trees to expose the lighter wood underneath. However, on most clear nights, the moon and starlight were strong enough to navigate at night.
In the 18th century, candles and oil lamps illuminated many light fixtures in most homes and businesses. These early sources of illumination emitted a weak light, smoked, and gave off foul odors. They were also dangerous and required constant attention. Wealthy aristocrats used beeswax and spermaceti candles to light up their lavish households.
The middle class used cheap tallow candles while the poor used rushlights, makeshift candles made from reeds dipped in animal or vegetable fat and ignited, which burned for a short time. During the 19th century, gas lighting replaced candles and oil lamps in many homes, businesses, and streets. Gas lamps produced a brighter and more efficient illumination.
They also cost 75 percent less than candles or oil lamps, and were easier and safer to operate. By the s, most city streets in the United States and Europe were illuminated by gas lamps. Gas lighting is credited with reducing crime rates and increasing literacy in many areas.
As electricity became more widespread during the turn of the century, gas lamps were replaced by incandescent lamps in streets, businesses, and theaters. The First Electric Lights. In , Sir Humphry Davy, an English physician, created the first electric light by passing a current through a platinum strip.
In , Davy demonstrated the first carbon arc lamp at the Royal Institute in London by connecting two wires to a battery and attaching a charcoal strip between the other ends of the wires. While the scientific community and the public raved about the demonstration, the arc lamp burned too brightly and consumed a large amount of current, which quickly drained the battery and rendered the lamp impractical for commercial development and production.
Several decades passed before electric generators made arc lamps practical for street and theater lighting. In , Pavel Nikolayevich Yablochkov, a Russian electrical engineer and inventor, developed the first practical arc lamp known as the "Yablochkov Candle. Arc lamps produced an intense, bright light that was ideal for illuminating streets and outdoor spaces, but the dazzling lights were not suitable for indoor use.
During the late s, Thomas A. Edison and many other inventors began to experiment with incandescent lamps in search for a reliable and economical form of indoor lighting. Arc lamps were used for searchlights, lighthouses, stadium lights, film production lights, film projector lamps, and other high-intensity lighting applications until the s when advancements in short-arc lamps made them obsolete. The First Incandescent Light Bulbs. Incandescent light bulbs use electricity to heat a carbon or metal base filament inside a glass bulb until it becomes hot and emits a radiant glow.
A vacuum keeps the filament from burning up too quickly and blackening the interior of the glass bulb. However, these early experiments were pivotal in the development of the first commercially viable incandescent light bulb. In , Frederick de Moleyns received the first patent for an incandescent lamp in England.
The lamp used a glass bulb, a partial vacuum and powdered charcoal between two platinum filaments to emit light. However, the lamp was not efficient enough for commercial use.
The vacuum's poor design caused the bulb to darken at the top and block light output, and the platinum filaments were too expensive.
Inventors developing incandescent lamps quickly adopted the invention because it helped to preserve the filament inside the bulb. In , Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans filed a patent for an incandescent light bulb with a carbon filament in Canada and the United States.
The light bulbs, although they worked properly, sold poorly. They sold their patent to Thomas Edison in In , William E. Sawyer and Albion Man received the first U. The first Westinghouse light bulbs were based on the Sawyer-Man incandescent lamps.
In many textbooks, Thomas A. Edison, an undisputed visionary, was not the only one competing to develop the first commercial incandescent bulb. Countless chemists, physicists, and inventors clamored for the honor and substantial payoff. In , a young Edison stated that he could create a safer, cheaper, and more reliable incandescent light to replace existing gas lights in just six weeks. The announcement caused gas company stocks to plummet.
To prevent the filament from overheating and burning out, a problem that plagued earlier inventors, he created a regulating system that intermittently diverted the current away from the filament, permitting it to cool. The system was difficult to manufacture and operate, and the light bulb itself would shut off every few minutes, rendering the lamp impractical for commercial development.
At the same time, Sir Joseph Wilson Swan, an English chemist and physicist, was independently working on an incandescent light bulb with a carbon filament. Swan began working on the incandescent bulb three decades earlier, but like other early inventors, he lacked a reliable vacuum and a suitable electric source to create a practical light bulb.
In late , he reported to the Newcastle Chemical Society that he had created a working incandescent lamp and he received a UK patent that same year. In February , Swan demonstrated a working lamp during a lecture at the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society. His lamp design included an enclosed bulb with the air removed, platinum lead wires, and light-emitting carbon element.
The carbon rod had low electrical resistance and required a large amount of current to heat up and make the filament glow, which meant that the electric conductors to the lamp had to be short or unreasonably thick. The rod also released gasses when the lamp was turned on and dark soot quickly accumulated inside the glass, blocking light output. Swan improved his design and eventually established his own electric lighting company, The Swan Electric Light Company, in In , Edison and his team discovered that a thin filament with high electrical resistance was more efficient.
This meant that only a small amount of current and reasonably sized copper cables were needed to make the filament glow. The team also experimented with carbonized filaments made from baywood, boxwood, cedar, cotton, hickory, and flax. In , Edison's team improved the light bulb with a bamboo filament that burned for 1, hours. The carbonized bamboo filament became the standard filament for the next ten years. The same year, Edison received a second U. Representatives of the Edison Electric Light Company promoted the new incandescent lamps by holding demonstrations at the Menlo Park lab and attending trade shows and expositions all around the country.
The demonstrations were designed to associate Edision's name with the new lighting technology. During this time, Edison pursued legal action after Swan after mutual allegations of patent infringement. Edison bought Swan out of the company after a few years. Thomas Edison did not invent the first light bulb; however, he did improve the design and performance of the earliest incandescent lamps to create the first commercially viable light bulb. He also developed other inventions that made the light bulb practical to for everyday use.
The Edison Screw, a system of screw mounts that ensures compatibility between a light bulb and the base of a light fixture, and a complete electrical lighting system including feeders, switches and meters not only capitalized on his light bulb design, but it also made him a household name and secured his name in the history books.
Edison's light bulb remained unaltered for several decades. In , William D. Coolidge, an American physicist at General Electric GE , developed tungsten filaments that lasted longer and burned brighter than carbon filaments.
GE overhauled their bulb-making equipment and began selling light bulbs with tungsten filaments, replacing the carbonize bamboo filaments.
In , Marvin Pipkin, a American chemist and inventor, developed the frosted incandescent light bulb. Pipkin also devised a silica coating process that helped diffuse light, reduce glare, and minimize loss of light output. The halogen light bulb was first introduced in by GE. These light bulbs, while an adaptation of incandescent light bulbs, reduced the uneven evaporation of the filament and darkening of the envelope by filling the lamp with halogen gas rather than an inert gas.
Halogen bulbs also lasted longer with an average life of 1, hours, and consumed 15 percent less energy. Despite numerous improvements over the years, modern incandescent bulbs remained inefficient. About ten percent of the electric power supplied to an incandescent light bulb is actually converted into visible light.
The remaining energy is wasted as heat. The U. Lighting engineers began to adapt fluorescent lighting for residential use. Fluorescent lamps had been in use since the s, but they were mainly used for commercial and industrial lighting. In , Edward E. Hammer, an engineer at GE, bent a fluorescent tube into a spiral shape, creating the first compact fluorescent light bulb CFL.
GE initially shelved the design because the machinery needed to mass produce the light bulbs was too expensive at the time. The design was leaked and shortly thereafter, other manufacturers began to produce the light bulb. Consumers were hesitant to embrace the new lighting technology due to its price, size, and performance.
Early CFLs were big and bulky, and did not fit in many light fixtures. They light bulbs also emitted a low light and performed inconsistently.
Thomas A. Edison Papers
By the time Edison began his effort to develop an incandescent electric light in September , researchers had been working on the problem for forty years. While many of them developed lamps that worked in the laboratory and for short-term demonstrations, none had been able to devise a lamp that would last in long-term commercial use. Edison was able to succeed where others had failed because understood that developing a successful commercial lamp also required him to develop an entire electrical system.
More than years ago, inventors began working on a bright idea that would have a dramatic impact on how we use energy in our homes and offices. This invention changed the way we design buildings, increased the length of the average workday and jumpstarted new businesses. It also led to new energy breakthroughs -- from power plants and electric transmission lines to home appliances and electric motors. It was a series of small improvements on the ideas of previous inventors that have led to the light bulbs we use in our homes today. Long before Thomas Edison patented -- first in and then a year later in -- and began commercializing his incandescent light bulb, British inventors were demonstrating that electric light was possible with the arc lamp.
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Description Our 8 foot LED tubes are compatible with virtually every 8ft fluorescent light fixture, making it the perfect replacement for fluorescent lights. Do not cut the lens any narrower; you need the full 24 inch width for the tube. To eliminate ballast compatibility issues and maintenance costs, look for direct wire 3 ft. An average linear LED will last for around 50, hours, meaning it loses about 30 percent of its light output after more than 10 years. For assistance finding the right 8-foot LED T8 tube, call today to speak with one of our knowledgeable lighting experts! T8 lamps. Some advantages to having LEDs in linear lighting fixtures are that LEDs save you money by have lower wattage for the same number or more lumen output light , they last longer up to 50, hours of use, equaling several more years , and they contain no mercury or other harmful substances so Lighting fixtures that use T8 LED tube lights. This is shown in the following image which features the LED tube light connection diagram. This is why a T8 LED with nominally fewer lumens less light production can replace a T8 fluorescent lamp that produces more lumens.
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Arc Lamps. How They Work. Inventors and Developments. T he carbon arc lamp was the first widely-used type of electric light and the first commercially successful form of electric lamp. Unlike the rest of the types of lighting described in our Electric Lighting pages, the arc light's development had to coincide with basic power generation developments.
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We supply high-performance lamps for film shooting, TV broadcasting, stage lighting, fishing, retail store lighting and industrial illumination. Our hermetic seals are primarily used for quartz oscillator metal packages which are used in mobile phones, clocks and watches, and computers; and the parts used in automotive seat belts and airbags. Koto promote direct plating on glass, resin plating with ultraviolet UV pretreatment and UV irradiation equipment, practical application of devices plated with our new technology.
In the beginning, there was light. Everyone knows that part. But how did we learn to control and use it for ourselves? This history highlights several technologies that have been used to produce light: flame from wood, oil and gas; arc or glow from electricity; and the fluorescence of minerals. Three terra cotta oil lamps from early Rome.
U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
CBECS data collection is an inherently complex and time-consuming process. The latest CBECS considers a sample of buildings designed to be representative of all commercial buildings in On-site surveys of the sampled buildings were conducted from April through November of , and energy bill data for those buildings was collected in Starting in and continuing into , EIA published data on the characteristics of the buildings and in mid issued a public use building characteristics file. Data on energy use and expenditures with end-use detail was released in following extensive analysis to relate characteristics of buildings to their energy bills. Lighting is an area where improvements in energy efficiency are often sought.
As dazzling as Cree Lighting is, the back story will leave you feeling even more warm and fuzzy. Get it here. Got questions?
With the differential arc lamp of , Siemens brought electric light to streets and plazas, thus also helping expand the delivery of electricity. In continuous competition with gas lighting, electric light slowly proved its worth in urban centers, initially with the arc lamp and then with the incandescent-filament lamp. But in carbon arc lamps, the inevitable burn-down of the electrodes, which increased the distance between them, ultimately caused the arc to burn out.
The History of the Light Bulb
A lamp is an energy converter. Although it may carry out secondary functions, its prime purpose is the transformation of electrical energy into visible electromagnetic radiation. There are many ways to create light.
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He experimented with electricity and invented an electric battery. More notably, in , British scientist Warren de la Rue enclosed a coiled platinum filament in a vacuum tube and passed an electric current through it. They built their lamps with different sizes and shapes of carbon rods held between electrodes in glass cylinders filled with nitrogen. Woodward and Evans attempted to commercialize their lamp, but were unsuccessful. In , Edison was finally able to produce a reliable, long-lasting electric light bulb in his laboratory. But each station was able to power only a few city blocks.
Global Electric Lighting Equipment Manufacturing Market Briefing provides strategists, marketers and senior management with the critical information they need to assess the global electric lighting equipment manufacturing market. The electric lighting equipment manufacturing market can be classified into i Electric Lamp Bulb and Part Manufacturing businesses that manufacture electric bulbs and tubes and their components. This can be attributed to comparatively high demand for electric light bulbs and tubes from individual customers and commercial establishments.