Production commercial pigments
Surface Coatings pp Cite as. In William Gregor discovered titanium dioxide in black magnetic sand in Cornwall and in M H Klaproth isolated the oxide from mineral rutile in Hungary, but the first commercial production of titanium dioxide pigment did not take place until the s. The first pigments produced were achieved by reacting ilmenite FeTiO 3 with sulfuric acid, followed by a hydrolysis procedure, which incorporated calcium or barium sulfate. This produced the first composite pigments in which the titanium dioxide was present in the anatase crystal form. The first rutile titanium dioxide pigments appeared in the s, still utilizing the sulfuric acid reaction as the first step and finally, in the late s, rutile pigments produced by the chloride route were introduced commercially. Unable to display preview.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Colors - Encaustic, Pigment Stick production at R&F
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- Therapeutic applications of bacterial pigments: a review of current status and future opportunities
- Pigments Provider Expands and Modernizes Production
- US2488439A - Production of titanium oxide pigments - Google Patents
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- US2138049A - Drying pigments - Google Patents
- DIC Corporation to Acquire BASF’s Global Pigments Business
Therapeutic applications of bacterial pigments: a review of current status and future opportunities
O Box 33, Nizwa, Oman. Non-toxicity, biodegradability and non-carcinogenicity of the natural pigments, dyes and colorants make them an attractive source for human use.
Bacterial pigments are colored metabolites secreted by bacteria under stress. The industrial uses of bacterial pigments have increased many folds because of several advantages over the synthetic pigments. Among natural resources, bacterial pigments are mostly preferred because of simple culturing and pigment extraction techniques, scaling up and being time economical. Generally, the bacterial pigments are safe for human use and therefore have a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical, textile, cosmetics and food industries.
Therapeutic nature of the bacterial pigments is revealed because of their antimicrobial, anticancer, cytotoxic and remarkable antioxidant properties. Owing to the importance of bacterial pigments it was considered important to produce a comprehensive review of literature on the therapeutic and industrial potential of bacterial pigments.
Extensive literature has been reviewed on the biomedical application of bacterial pigments while further opportunities and future challenges have been discussed. Non-toxicity, biodegradability and non-carcinogenicity of the natural dyes and colorants derived from natural flora and fauna make them an attractive source for human use Joshi et al.
Synthetically synthesized pigments are mostly criticized because of various public and scientific concerns due to which the market value is also reducing Koes et al. US environmental activists in demonstrated against the synthetic food additives and colorants and his idea spread out globally. Because of its nutritional value, the activist campaigned for the use of natural pigments and colorants. Because of his campaign, the use of colorants and additives shifted towards natural sources, and currently, natural pigments are widely used nowadays Krishnamurthy et al.
Pharmacological and other viable health advantages of natural pigments over synthetic pigments have further boosted their use in market. Green technology favor less toxic and more natural material for the production line. Some synthetic dyes and colorants are prohibited in the market because of their carcinogenic precursor product and disposal effects of their industrial waste in the environment.
On the other hand, natural pigments, colorants and dyes have high market value because of their various advantages such as safety and also have potential biological activities such as anticancer and antioxidant. These factors increase the thrust of exploring new sources of natural pigments and food colorants.
Natural colorants actually increase market value of a product. The increasing applications of natural pigments in different areas such as food, cosmetics, textile and pharmaceutical industries turned researches to find potential compounds in these pigments that have important therapeutic applications. The toxic effect of many drugs compel pharmacist to search new sources of drugs that are safer in use and antibiotic of broad spectrum potential.
The current increase in the drug resistance in pathogen might be due to the increased use of present antibiotics Gupte et al. To overcome such type of drug resistance by pathogens, antibiotics demand to be developed from new sources. Currently, for the cancer that is the leading causative agent of death there is no reasonable drug available Taylor et al.
The demand for new drug expands with the increase spreading of new pathogens and very restricted availability for the control of drugs resistance of in-cancer patients. Products of microbes and actinobacteria in particular, isolated from novel ecosystem can be a potential alternative source for new drugs.
Various studies reported the screening of pigments isolated from various soil bacteria Mellouli et al. Considering the potential pharmacological potential of bacterial pigments, it was felt necessary to write a detailed review about various aspects of therapeutic abilities of these natural bacterial pigments.
Extensive literature was studied for this purpose to cover nearly all health-related benefits of bacterial pigments. In this review, we cover many important aspects such as anticancer ability, antileishmanial ability, antibacterial ability and antioxidant potential of bacterial pigments. Despites health benefits, some applications of these pigments in food and textile industry have also been discussed.
Schematic representation of pigment extraction is shown in Fig. The environmental safety, conservation and awareness have switched the trend towards the natural sources for coloring agents. Anthraquinones and flavonoids are natural products that are traditionally used as coloring agents which are commonly derived from animals and plants. Currently, as the trend is shifting towards the natural sources for the eco-friendly compounds, natural colorants are leading the market demand over the passage of time.
These natural colorants and pigments are derived from many different sources such as insects, ores microbes and plants. Among these sources, microbes and bacteria in particular have the capacity to synthesize a wide of range secondary metabolites and pigments. It is an emerging field and is in the stage of infancy. Efforts are needed to develop a cheap media for bacterial growth to reduce its cost and make it feasible for commercial production Joshi ; Venil and Lakshmanaperumalsamy ; Ahmad et al.
Pigment producing microorganisms Konuray and Erginkaya Compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids and isoprenoids isolated from natural sources were used for fragrance, flavors and as colorants in ancient time.
The trend of using natural products switched to synthetic products due to low availability and high price of the natural pigments, colorants and dyes in the previous decades. But the various safety and other toxic issues in synthetic pigments, the market once again is switching towards the natural pigments Sowbhagya and Chitra A lot of work is continued to explore a novel bacteria that can produce commercially important pigments Li and Vederas Previous studies indicated that bacterial secondary metabolites and pigments in particular have immense importance in the treatment of various diseases and also have properties such as anticancer, antibiotic and immunosuppressive compounds.
Various secondary metabolites that have potential therapeutic activities are phenols, quinols, flavonoids, polyketones, peptides, terpenoids, steroids and alkaloids. These compounds have remarkable anticancer, immunosuppressive, inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities Korkina Recently, a review has been published on the biosynthesis of these compounds from bacteria Singh et al.
With the passage of time the investigation of new, vital and bioactive compounds from bacterial sources increased as compared to other sources Soliev et al. For example, anthocyanin, a compound that have diverse biological activities and positively affect health and have the property to reduce the risk of cancer Kong et al. Anthocyanin is also involved in reducing the chances of inflammatory insults and have role in modulating the immune response Youdim et al.
There are various other examples of bacterial pigments for the treatment of various diseases such as a compound prodigiosin, isolated from the Serratia culture broth have the cytotoxic as well as antiproliferative potential in various cell lines such as renal, colon, lung and ovarian cell lines Fig.
Prodigiosin is also found in the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients Kim et al. This compound is also reported for the treatment of diabetes mellitus Kim et al. Another compound isolated from the yellow—orange pigment flexirobin, ant F-YOP from Flavobacterium sp. If further research is performed on these bacterial pigments, these can open new ways of treating various deadly diseases. Cancer is one of the most prominent causes of death in both male and female around the globe and around 6 million people are victim of this disease each year.
Many drugs against cancer are developed and are in trials to date. But side effects and resistance to these drugs have also been discovered. Apoptosis is now one of the novel methods recognized to kill tumors without causing resistance or any other side effects Lowe and Lin Apoptosis is currently focused for cancer treatment McConkey et al.
Marine organisms are a diverse source of various natural products Cragg and Newman ; Schwartsmann et al. About compounds in past few years have been reported from various marine sources while some of them entered into clinical trials Schwartsmann et al. Oceans contain millions of species Nuijen et al. Many studies reported the anticancer ability of bacterial pigments, for example, Lin et al. They reported strong cytotoxic effect of these extracts on HeLa cells and showed that the extract have significantly inhibited the growth of HeLa cells in a time-dependent manner Lin et al.
Other studies reported the potential use of anthocyanin, a compound that has diverse biological activities and positively affects health and has the property to reduce the risk of cancer Kong et al.
Another example of bacterial pigments used for the treatment of various diseases is a compound prodigiosin, isolated from the Serratia culture broth. This compound has cytotoxic as well as antiproliferative potential in various cell lines such as renal, colon, lung and ovarian cell lines.
The cytotoxic and antiproliferative potentials of the analogs of prodigiosin and the derivatives of the synthetic indole of prodigiosin Pandey et al.
The potential cytotoxic effect of this compound has also been reported in cell lines cultured from tumors and also have significant activity against cancer cells derived from B-cell chronic lymphocytic of leukemia patients Campas et al. Another compound violacein in bacterial pigments has the anticancer and antioxidant activity properties Konzen et al. Leishmaniasis, a fatal and disfiguring disease caused by a protozoan leishmania.
More than 12 million people are affected by this disease worldwide. In Brazil, the most common is Leishmania amazonensis and is linked with different disease forms, including hyperergic mucocutaneous, cutaneous, visceral leishmaniasis and anergic diffuse cutaneous Leon et al. Antileishmanial activity of bacterial pigments was only reported by Leon et al. Leon et al. They reported that a compound named violacein showed significant antileishmanial activity.
They compared the value with pentamidine, a drug that is used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. They found that violacein is less active as compared to pentamidine. When pentamidine is used at a concentration of They further included that although it is less active but has no side effects as compared to pentamidine that has toxic effects Melo et al.
Bacterial pigments are reported to have antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. August et al. Similar results were studied by Suresh et al. Suresh et al. They found that the red pigment produced by H.
The summarized antibacterial results Suresh et al. Rashid et al. In their study, they reported the antibacterial effect of pigments of different isolates against nine different Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacterial strains.
Previous literature reported by Rashid et al. Monascus pigments that are usually yellow, orange and red in color are reported to have weak antimicrobial activity Kim et al. Another study performed by Cheng and Tseng Chen and Tseng showed that Monascus purpureus pigments exhibited antibacterial activity against S. Violacein, an active compound of bacterial pigments, is reported to have antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and tend to inhibit their growth except Clostridium welchii Duran et al.
Umadevi and Krishnaveni also observed positive antibacterial activity of pigments against different human pathogenic bacterial strains such as Klebsiella sp. They also found their sample negative against Streptococcus sp. Umadevi and Krishnaveni Study performed by Radjasa et al.
Pigments Provider Expands and Modernizes Production
O Box 33, Nizwa, Oman. Non-toxicity, biodegradability and non-carcinogenicity of the natural pigments, dyes and colorants make them an attractive source for human use. Bacterial pigments are colored metabolites secreted by bacteria under stress. The industrial uses of bacterial pigments have increased many folds because of several advantages over the synthetic pigments. Among natural resources, bacterial pigments are mostly preferred because of simple culturing and pigment extraction techniques, scaling up and being time economical.
Patented Nov. Application January 21, , Serial No. This invention or discovery relates to drying pigments; and it comprises a method of dehydrating wet pigment pastes, slurries and press cakes to secure free-running dry powders preserving the original particle size and original pigmentary value, which comprises forming an admixture of wet pigment with water in amount suficient to produce a relativelythin slurry, agitating to produce a smooth colloidal suspension, adding to the slurry a small amount of a waterimmiscible volatile liquid, homogenizing and emulsifying the compound aqueous suspension thereby produced by vigorous agitation, and exposing said homogenized suspension to heat in thin layers, whereby the liquids are evaporated and removed, yielding a fine, pulveriform, noncaking pigment preparation; all as more fully hereinafter set forth and as claimed. An object achieved in the present invention is the direct conversion of wet pigments into dry fine grained powders without a comminuting grinding; the original discrete individual particles of the wet pigment reappearing in the dry pigment and the pigment being readily milled into viscous varnish and paint vehicles. Obviating mechanical comminution of hard, dried pigment gives not only an economy in costs but better products.
US2488439A - Production of titanium oxide pigments - Google Patents
Feeds for commercial layers are usually supplemented with synthetic pigments to ensure egg yolk has a desired and, even more importantly, consistent color; ranging from golden yellow to deep orange-red depending on local preferences. There is, however, a small but increasingly significant market, in which all-natural ingredients are all that are allowed to be used in layer feeds, and as such, synthetic pigments are excluded. For this market, for which egg yolk color is as important as any other market, two aspects that largely control egg pigmentation must be considered: type and concentration of pigments. The most important xanthophylls for egg yolk coloration are zeaxanthin and lutein. The former is causing egg yolks to be more orange-red in color, while lutein imparts a more yellow hue. The balance between these two major xanthophylls is what determines final color in egg yolks. Equally important to this balance is the total xanthophyll concentration in feed.
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US2138049A - Drying pigments - Google Patents
The new facilities will significantly increase production capacities for silicon dioxide flakes, a special substrate for a whole range of unique effect pigments. At the end of September, the company celebrated the new production facility with a traditional ceremony marking the placement of the last beam in the structure in Gernsheim, Germany. Around employees work at the Gernsheim site, which is also home to the company's largest pigment production facility worldwide. We are now very much looking forward to adding additional exciting chapters to this successful history.
Dyestuff sector is one of the core chemical industries in India. There are two types of colorants dyes and pigments. Dyes are soluble substances used to pass color to the substrate and find applications primarily in textiles and leather. Pigments are coloring materials, which are water insoluble. Pigment are usually manufactured as dry colorants and grounded into fine powder. The dyes market, meanwhile, largely depends upon the fortunes of its principal end-user, textiles, which account for about 70 percent of the total demand.
DIC Corporation to Acquire BASF’s Global Pigments Business
Patented Nov. Application March 9, , Serial No. This invention relates to the production of pigment-useful titanium dioxide and to novel methods for obtaining that product. More particularly it relates to the production of T pigments by the oxidation under controlled conditions of titanium tetrachloride while in the gaseous phase. Titanium dioxide has been prepared in the laboratory by reacting titanium tetrachloride in the vapor phase with an oxygen-containing gas and by a so-called steam-splitting reaction. However, these prior oxidation processes lack technical importance and are neither adaptable to nor feasible for commercial exploitation. Thus, such methods entail a very diflicult, costly and discontinuous type of operation, while the titanium dioxide resulting therefrom is decidedly. Furthermore, these methods fail to afford a process in which the crystalline form of-the titanium dioxide produced can be controlled at will,-and require the use of large excesses of oxygen to convert the tetrachloride.
This invention relates to novel and improved cadmium red pigments and to new and improved methods for manufacturing such pigments. Cadmium red pigments comprise well-known commercial products, being employed in the production of paints, vitreous enamels, and in other uses. These red pigments contain cadmium, sulphur, and selenium, and their color depends upon the method which is used in their manufacture, as well as the variation in composition and ingredients of the final product. The conventional cadmium red pigment offered to the paint trade is usually obtained by coprecipitating cadmium sulpho-selenide and barium sulphate through the admixture of solutions of barium sulpho-selenide and cadmium sulphate. The resulting pigment is then calcined to develop its pigment properties and is usually called a cadmium red lithopone.
Krebs and was a manufacturer of lithopone and titanium dioxide. The company was founded in by Henrik J. Krebs in Newport, Delaware.
Nov 29, The Expresswire -- Organic Pigments Market report focuses on the budding trends of market, market share, its segmentation, regional outlook and have explored different segments of the market. The Organic Pigments Market report provides an overall analysis of Organic Pigments market overview, segmentation by market types, potential applications and production analysis. The report revolves around the challenges that are being confronted and gives the arrangements and the procedures that have been implemented to overcome the issues. Profound examines and analysis were done during the arrangement of the report.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength -selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence , phosphorescence , and other forms of luminescence , in which a material emits light. Most materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them useful for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors.
Developing new colors for the food industry is challenging, as colorants need to be compatible with a food flavors, safety, and nutritional value, and which ultimately have a minimal impact on the price of the product. In addition, food colorants should preferably be natural rather than synthetic compounds. Micro-organisms already produce industrially useful natural colorants such as carotenoids and anthocyanins. Microbial food colorants can be produced at scale at relatively low costs. This review highlights the significance of color in the food industry, why there is a need to shift to natural food colors compared to synthetic ones and how using microbial pigments as food colorants, instead of colors from other natural sources, is a preferable option. We also summarize the microbial derived food colorants currently used and discuss their classification based on their chemical structure. Finally, we discuss the challenges faced by the use and development of food grade microbial pigments and how to deal with these challenges, using advanced techniques including metabolic engineering and nanotechnology.
В связи с одной из таких работ он и познакомился со Сьюзан. В то прохладное осеннее утро у него был перерыв в занятиях, и после ежедневной утренней пробежки он вернулся в свою трехкомнатную университетскую квартиру. Войдя, Дэвид увидел мигающую лампочку автоответчика.