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This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Letter of submittal 5 Introduction 7 Linen industry in Ireland 14 Irish linen mills 20 Raw materials 25 Processes of manufacture 30 Spinning 30 Hackling room 32 Preparing room 36 Spinning room 37 Yarn department 44 Weaving 44 Weft and warp winding 45 Dressing 45 Weaving 46 Bleaching and finishing 49 Warehouse work 58 Operatives and wages 61 Cost of typical flax spinning and weaving mill 73 Linen industry in Scotland.
Roughing, the first operation in a flax mill 33 2. Tow carding in a Belfast mill. Flax spreading machine. Flax roving snd drawing machine.
Wet spinning frames for linen yarn. Linen weaving mill 47 7. The world's largest bleach field. Jute roving and spinning frames 9. Shuttle used in jute weaving and weaver's reed hook, etc Jute weave shed ,.
Sir : I have the honor to submit herewith a report by Commercial Agent W. Graham Clark on the linen, jute, and hemp industries of the United Kingdom, with supplementary data as to the growing and manufacture of jute in India. As linen manufacturing centers largely in Ireland and jute manufacturing in Scotland, special atten- tion is given to these industries in their respective fields.
Detailed information is presented as to processes of manufacture, cost of pro- duction, wages and conditions of employment, cost of constructing and operating factories, commercial usages, and foreign trade.
Baldavin, Chief of Bureau. To Hon. William C. Redfield, Secretary of Commerce. Flax, hemp, and jute are so-called bast fibers, which are found in the skin of the plant stems producing them and which are freed from the inner woody core and the surrounding pulp by retting. They differ in this from the hard fibers, such as abaca, henequen, sisal, aloe fiber, and New Zealand hemp, which are found in the leaves of the plants producing them, from which they can be sepa- rated only by scraping, or decortication.
Flax is mainly a clothing material, jute is the premier wrapping and sacking material of the world, while hemp is primarily a cordage material. In the United Kingdom Manchester is the center of cotton manu- facturing, Bradford of wool, Belfast of linen and hemp, Dundee of jute, and Macclesfield of silk. From the beginning of the machine manufacture of cotton the English have led in this industry, and in spite of increasing competition they still have a great lead in spindles and looms and in value of output, though surpassed by the United States in the amount of raw material worked.
Until the middle of the eighteenth century wool was England's foremost textile indus- try, and, though it has now been displaced by cotton, England still leads in the manufacture and export of woolen goods, with the United States and Germany yearly increasing their competition. In jute manufacture the United Kingdom led for a long while, but it is now greatly distanced by India and has taken second place.
In flax manufacture the United Kingdom still maintains a great lead over all competitors, but in the manufacture of soft hemp it is dis- tanced by Russia. In silk the United Kingdom has not been very successful and the industry has declined greatly from its former position. Although flax and wool are produced on a commercial basis in the United Kingdom, the bulk of these raw materials is obtained from abroad, while the cotton, jute, hemp, silk, and lesser used fibers are obtained entirely from other countries.
Flax, hemp, wool, and silk are ancient fibers, while cotton and jute are of very modern use in the world's markets. Cotton did not attain great importance until the invention of the cotton gin in , while jute manufacture on a commercial scale may be said to have started at Dundee about Flax is the oldest of all vegetable fibers of which we have record as being applied to the use of mankind, and at the dawn of recorded history we find the Egyptians famous for its manufacture.
To-day Ireland is most noted for its manufacture, and the linen require- ments of the land of the Pharaohs and of other lands beyond the seas are supplied mainly from Belfast. The center of the world's manufacture is the Province of Ulster, of which Belfast is the capital and chief city. Other important flax-manufacturing countries are France, Kussia, Germany, and Belgium, but the United Kingdom contains about a third of the flax spindles of the world, of which the total may be estimated at something over 3,, The bulk of the world's flax supply is raised in Eussia, while smaller quantities are produced in Austria-Hungary, Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Ireland, and the Netherlands.
Hemp is raised to some extent in China, Japan, India, and other sections, but it is typically a European product. Eussia produces the bulk of the soft hemp, substantial amounts also being raised in Italy, Austria, and France. Soft hemp is manufactured mainly in ropeworks, which also use the hard fibers, so that it is difficult to obtain world statistics that can be considered accurate.
The Belfast Eopeworks Co. Jute is almost a monopoly of the northeast section of India and is the world's cheapest fiber. The center of manufacture is around Calcutta, in the Province of Bengal, but Dundee leads in the pro- duction of the higher-grade articles. The operatives employed in the various textile industries of the United Kingdom, according to Board of Trade figures, were as follows in , the latest year for which statistics are available : Industries.
Per cent , , 29, 9, 12, 8, 12, 3, 3, , Per cent , , 70, 30, 27, 20, 8, 7, 4, As the census of production was the first taken in the United Kingdom and the final results were largely the result of estimates to avoid duplications, etc. They serve, however, to throw considerable light on the status of the various industries. In the figures finally published, the bast fiber industries — those utilizing flax, hemp, and jute — are grouped more or less. The total production of yarn in the jute, hemp, and linen industries of the United Kingdom, including both that woven and that sold, the total exports, and the total net imports imports less reexports were as follows in : Yarns.
Net imports. Less than one-seventh of the quantity of jute yarns manufactured in the United Kingdom was exported in the form of yarn, and less than one-ninth of the linen yarns. The British production, exports, and Bet imports of piece goods in were as follows, the figures including both pure and mixed goods : Articles. Net Yards. S22,, made into articles of clothing, etc. About half of the quantity of jute piece goods was exported in the cloth. Of the three classes of linen piece goods, about 62 per cent of the plain, bleached, and unbleached piece goods was exported and about 20 per cent of the checked, printed, dyed, damask, and diaper piece goods, the figures in both cases being exclusive of the piece goods made into articles of clothing, etc,, by weaving firms.
About 19 per cent of the sailcloth and canvas was exported. As a considerable quantity of yarn made by spinners and sold to weavers was included by both classes of manufacturers in their out- put, once as yarn and again as piece goods, and, further, as the exact quantity of yarn sold to rope and net makers was not known, it was not possible to state precisely the value of the jute, hemp, and linen production as a whole.
The census estimated, however, on the basis of the following particulars for : Value. In quantity, the total output was ,, pounds. In each case these figures represent the amount spent during the year for labor and general factory expenses, plus the profit.
In considering the present status of the bast fiber industry in the United Kingdom it is of interest to ascertain the amount of raw ma- terials they use as compared with other British textile industries. The imports and exports of raw materials for the calendar year given below are from British statistics. These statistics list rags, tow, waste, silk, etc. Raw cotton :.
The flax, hemp, and jute industries rank second in quantity of materials used and third in value. The value of the textile mate- rials imported into the United Kingdom in , not considering rags, waste, tow, etc. Jute was the cheapest fiber imported and silk the dearest.
The linen industry pays poorer wages than any other textile in- dustry of the United Kingdom. The latest figures available are those for , which showed that full-time workers in the cotton industry averaged 19s.
It is estimated that the average wages in the linen industry have advanced by about 6d. Flax is as cheap as or cheaper than cotton, wages in the linen indus- try average less than two-thirds of those paid in the cotton industry, and yet finished goods made from flax average much higher in price than finished cotton goods.
Manufacturers state that this is due to the fact that flax is a much more difficult fiber to manufacture than cotton, that it takes many more operatives and a much longer time to obtain the same output, that the first cost per spindle or per loom is much greater, and that bleaching and dyeing, owing to the hard and impermeable nature of the flax fiber, are much more elaborate and costly operations. Cotton is linen's most formidable competitor, and its growing production and the increasing skill with which it is manufactured making it in many cases difficult to distinguish it from linen tend to prevent expansion in the manufacture of the older and more durable fabric.
Owing to the great development of machinery in the cotton industry, cotton, though one of the shortest of fibers, is the most easily manufactured. A cotton mill using mule spindles can be erected and completely equipped in the United Kingdom for about 27s. A flax-spinning mill requires three times as many operatives as a cotton- spinning mill of the same size, yet has a smaller production. The difference in the first cost of spinning mills for the two indus- tries is much greater than in the first cost of ordinary weave sheds, for in preparing and spinning flax the hard, slippery, and inelastic nature of the fiber necessitates much more expensive machinery.
The great variations in the flax fibers, even in those from the same field, require elaborate and costly hackling and sorting, in which about 50 per cent of the fiber becomes tow of comparatively low value, raising the cost of dressed flax fully 50 per cent above that of new flax.
Cotton, on the other hand, is very uniform in quality and is cheaply carded with much less loss in weight. The turn-off of a cotton spindle is much greater than that of a flax spindle and much larger bobbins or quills are permissible, which makes succeeding operations cost less. Cotton is more elastic than flax, hence more easily woven, and looms can be operated at a higher speed. In bleaching, cotton is finished more quickly and with less loss of weight and less risk of damage.
Flax fiber is able to withstand such formidable competition only by reason of its inherent beauty, strength, and durability, which enable it to endure repeated handling and washings with less loss of its sheen and hard surface and with- out napping. In the pages following the methods of manufacture and the pres- ent status of the fine linen trade of Ireland and the coarse linen trade of Scotland are discussed. Little reference is made to the English linen trade, as it is now a very small proportion of the total and as the trade of Barnsley in Yorkshire, the only surviving English cen- ter of any importance, is the manufacture of coarse goods similar to those made in Scotland.
The study of the jute trade practically con- fines itself to the study of Dundee, as only a small amount is manu- factured elsewhere in the United Kingdom. The hemp industry is not so localized and the ropeworks are scattered, most of them being located at the seaports of the three countries. Irish linens are world-renoAvned, and in the manufacture of flax into linens Ireland leads all countries in both quality and quantity. The industry centers in the Province of Ulster, in North Ireland, and Ulster and its capital, Belfast, hold the same position in the world's linen trade as Lancashire and Manchester do in the cotton trade.
Of some 3,, spindles in the world working on flax, Ire- land contains nearly a third. Flax manufacturing, the staple industry of Ireland to-day, is its only surviving textile industry of importance. An extensive silk- weaving trade, founded by the Huguenots, existed at one time, but it suffered so much from strikes at home and increasing competition abroad that it has now almost disappeared.
A large and flourishing woolen industry formerly existed in the south of Ireland, but its com- petition was so troublesome to the English trade that Parliament was induced to curtail its growth by heavy duties on the exportation of Irish woolens, and it was practically wiped out. As compensation, opportunities were afforded the Irish to prosecute their flax industry and bounties were voted for propagating and improving the manu- facture of linen. The manufacture of linen by hand seems to have flourished at a very early period in Ulster, and the cultivation of flax is thought to have been introduced by the Norman settlers who occupied Ireland in the thirteenth century.
All of this was both spun and woven by hand.
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This factory is owned by Messrs. The works stand on about four acres of ground, one half of which is covered in, and the rest an open space or shed. On my visit to this place, Captain Ritchie, M.
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Account Options Sign in. Ralph M. Odell , United States. Doonan , United States. Selected pages Page Page Contents Letter of submittal 5. Freight rates of our competitors Lighterage cartage etc at New York. Letter of submittal CanadaContinued.
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This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Letter of submittal 5 Introduction 7 Linen industry in Ireland 14 Irish linen mills 20 Raw materials 25 Processes of manufacture 30 Spinning 30 Hackling room 32 Preparing room 36 Spinning room 37 Yarn department 44 Weaving 44 Weft and warp winding 45 Dressing 45 Weaving 46 Bleaching and finishing 49 Warehouse work 58 Operatives and wages 61 Cost of typical flax spinning and weaving mill 73 Linen industry in Scotland. Roughing, the first operation in a flax mill 33 2.
East London Industries : the jute factory, Stratford-le-Bow
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The Industries of Scotland Linen and Jute Manufacturers FROM the frequent mention of linen in the history of Scotland, it is evident that the inhabitants were acquainted with the processes of making cloth from flax six hundred years ago at least. Then placing themselves in battle array, and making a great show, they came down the hillside in face of the enemy with much noise and clamour. The English, supposing them to be a reinforcement coming to the Scots, turned and fled. At first the flax was grown, dressed, spun, and woven by the people for their own use; but towards the close of the sixteenth century linen goods formed the chief part of the exports from Scotland to foreign countries. About the same time a considerable quantity of Scotch linen found its way into England.
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A textile  is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers yarn or thread. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool , flax , cotton , hemp , or other materials to produce long strands. The related words " fabric "  and " cloth "  and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades such as tailoring and dressmaking as synonyms for textile.
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For example, cotton , nylon , polyester , or silk. Fibers are either natural e. Natural fibers include those produced by plants, animals, and geological processes. They are biodegradable over time.
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